PSY 213 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
PSYCHOLOGY - the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
BEHAVIORISM - the study of overt (observable & measurable) behavior COGNITIVISM - the study of mental processes (perception, thinking, memory, motivation, attitudes)
FOUR BIG IDEAS IN PSYCHOLOGY
CRITICAL THINKING - examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, tests conclusions
BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH - a holistic approach which acknowledges the impact each domain of a person (biological, psychological, and social) has on the others
BIOPSYCHOLOGICALPERSPECTIVE (biological model) - attributes behavior to biological events
DUAL PROCESSING CAPACITY (two track mind) conscious and unconscious functioning of the brain in perception, memory, attitudes
EXPLORING HUMAN STRENGTHS - Psychology today focuses not only on understanding and offering relief from troublesome behaviors and emotions, but also on understanding and building beneficial emotions and traits as well as on using and developing our strengths to maximize our potential.
Description – What is happening?
Understanding – Why is it happening?
Prediction – when will it happen again?
Control – How can it be changed?
STRUCTURALISM – focus on the study of the basic elements of the mind FUNCTIONALISM – focus on how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY –focus on perception and sensation, perceiving patterns and “making whole” PSYCHOANALYSIS – theory and therapy based upon the work of Sigmund Freud BEHAVIORISM – focus on observable behavior
PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE – modern version of psychoanalysis, more focused on development Of a sense of self and motivations for behavior
BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE – focus on overt behavior
HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE – emphasis on human potential
BIOPSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE – attributes behavior to biological events COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE – focus on mental processes (memory, thinking, attitudes, comprehension…) SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE – focus on the relationship between social behavior and culture EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE – focus on mental strategies/traits all humans have & adaptation
WHAT DO PSYCHOLOGISTS DO?
TEACHING PSYCHOLOGISTS teach in colleges and universities, high schools, and the military. EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS do pure research (to expand the body of knowledge) or applied research (to find solutions to specific problems). NEUROPSYCHOLOGISTS study the functions of the nervous system and the biological basis of behavioral and mental problems related to the central nervous system. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS help with serious psychological disorders. COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGISTS help clients define problems, clarify goals, and surmount obstacles. SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS directly assist students with problems that interfere with learning. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGISTS help schools improve curriculum & instruction. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS study physical, emotional, cognitive, & social changes that occur throughout the life span - study the relative influences of heredity and the environment on development - conduct research on issues such as the effects of maternal use of drugs on the fetus, the outcomes of various patterns of child rearing, conflicts and adjustment at various stages. PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGISTS study individuality (uniqueness of each person); attempt to define human traits to determine their influences on human thought processes, feelings, behavior, and psychological disorders. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS study how people think about, influence, and relate to each other. Study individual and group social behavior, as well as such issues as attitude formation, attitude change, gender roles, interpersonal attraction, stereotypes, conformity, obedience, group decision making, and aggression. CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGISTS study behavior of shoppers to predict and influence their purchasing....
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