Veneration Without Understanding by Renato Constantino

Topics: Cerebrum, Brain, Nervous system Pages: 230 (70390 words) Published: July 2, 2013
Published in 2011 by Britannica Educational Publishing (a trademark of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.) in association with Rosen Educational Services, LLC 29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Copyright © 2011 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, and the Thistle logo are registered trademarks of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. All rights reserved. Rosen Educational Services materials copyright © 2011 Rosen Educational Services, LLC. All rights reserved. Distributed exclusively by Rosen Educational Services. For a listing of additional Britannica Educational Publishing titles, call toll free (800) 237-9932. First Edition Britannica Educational Publishing Michael I. Levy: Executive Editor J.E. Luebering: Senior Manager Marilyn L. Barton: Senior Coordinator, Production Control Steven Bosco: Director, Editorial Technologies Lisa S. Braucher: Senior Producer and Data Editor Yvette Charboneau: Senior Copy Editor Kathy Nakamura: Manager, Media Acquisition Kara Rogers: Senior Editor, Biomedical Sciences Rosen Educational Services Alexandra Hanson-Harding: Senior Editor Nelson Sá: Art Director Cindy Reiman: Photography Manager Matthew Cauli: Designer, Cover Design Introduction by Don Rauf Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The brain and the nervous system / edited by Kara Rogers. p. cm. — (The human body) “In association with Britannica Educational Publishing, Rosen Educational services.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-61530-256-7 (eBook) 1. Nervous system—Popular works. 2. Brain—Popular works. I. Rogers, Kara. QP355.2.B725 2011 612.8—dc22 2010004639 On the cover: The human brain makes up only 2 percent of peoples’ total body weight. © www.istockphoto.com / Sebastian Kaulitzki Introduction: This image shows a longitudinal section of the human torso showing the autonomic nervous system. 3DClinic/Getty Images On pages 19, 50, 85, 112, 142, 167, 201, 233, 266, 268, 271, 275: © www.istockphoto.com / Stephen Kirklys

CONTENTS
Introduction 10 Chapter 1: The Central Nervous System 19 The Brain 19 Cerebrum 20 Brainstem 30 Cerebellum 37 The Spinal Cord 39 Cellular Laminae 42 Ascending Spinal Tracts 43 Descending Spinal Tracts 44 Chapter 2: The Peripheral and Autonomic Nervous Systems 50 The Peripheral Nervous System 50 Spinal Nerves 51 Cranial Nerves 62 The Autonomic Nervous System 74 Sympathetic Nervous System 76 Parasympathetic Nervous System 80 Enteric Nervous System 82 Chapter 3: Functions of the Human Nervous System 85 Identifying Neural Pathways 85 Receptors 89 Autonomic Control of Organs 92 The Eye 93 The Endocrine System 94 The Reproductive System 95 The Cardiovascular System 96 The Urinary System 99 Higher Cerebral Functions 99

22 40

52

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Analytical Approaches 100 Hemispheric Asymmetry, Handedness, and Cerebral Dominance 102 Language 106 Memory 108 Executive Functions of the Frontal Lobes 110 Chapter 4: The Nervous System in Motion 112 Reflex Actions 114 Sensory Receptors of Movement 117 Basic Organization of Movement 121 Lower-Level Mechanisms of Movement 125 Higher-Level Mechanisms of Movement 127 The Vestibular System 135 Saccule and Utricle 136 Semicircular Canals 137 Nerve Supply 137 Vestibular Functions 138 Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex 139 Conscious Sensation 139 Chapter 5: Perception, Sensation, and Neuroplasticity 142 Perception 143 General Organization of Perception 144 Vision 145 Hearing 148 Theories of Pain Sensation 149 Emotion and Behaviour 151 Neuroplasticity 158

124

Types of Cortical Neuroplasticity 159 Brain-Computer Interface 164 Chapter 6: Neurobiological Disorders of Development and Behaviour 167 Neural Tube Defects 167 Cerebral Palsy 168 Pervasive Developmental Disorders 171 Autism Spectrum Disorders 172 Autism 173 Asperger Syndrome 176 Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified 178 Childhood Disintegrative Disorder 179 Rett Syndrome 181 Mental and Behavioral Disorders 182 Schizophrenia 183 Depression...
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