Unit 13 Lecture Study Guide – Nervous System Part II
1. What are the 2 major divisions of the Nervous System?
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
2. What are the 2 major divisions of the central nervous system (CNS)?
The brain and the spinal cord
3. What are the 2 major divisions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
The somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system.
4. Differentiate between the autonomic and somatic nervous systems.
The somatic nervous system is a body of peripheral nerve fibers that transport sensory information, and motor nerve fibers. The autonomic nervous system uses two neurons, and controls smooth muscle located in organs.
5. List the 3 types of neurons found in the PNS and their function.
Lis Sensory – functions as sensory receptors to CNS
Motor – functions in the connection of CNS to muscles and organs.
Interneuron – functions in the connections within CNS. The 3 types of neurons found in the PNS and their function.
6. Differentiate between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Be sure to include at least 3 examples of responses controlled by each.
The sympathetic nervous system acts as “fight” or “flight” response, releasing adrenaline and noradrenalin increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and the blood flow to skeletal muscles. The parasympathetic nervous system functions as the “rest and digest” system. It calms the body, conserving and maintaining energy, and lowering the heartbeat, breathing rate, and blood pressure.
8. What is lateralization and how are body functions affected by it? It is when the left and right sides of the brain are separated; the left side controls the language while the right side contains math and music.
9. Describe the principle of contralateral organization.
When sensory data crosses over in pathways leading to the cortex.
10. List the 4 lobes of each hemisphere and its basic functions. Frontal: important planning and sequencing areas, Broca’s area for speech Parietal: hand-eye coordination, eye movements, and attention Occipital: contains primary visual cortex
Temporal: speech, face, word recognitions, and memory formation
11. What is the corpus callosum? What happens if it is cut?
Major pathway between hemispheres, hemispheres can’t exchange data
12. What is the conjunctiva?
Membrane which produces mucous that lubricates the eye and prevents dryness
13. List the function and location of the following structures: sclera, cornea, choroid, ciliary body, iris, lens, retina and pupil. Sclera: protects eye, shapes eye, anchors eye muscles
Cornea: transparent window for light entry, refracts light
14. Differentiate between the aqueous and vitreous humor.
The vitreous humor transmits light within the posterior segment while the aqueous humor supplies nutrients and oxygen to the cornea, lens and portions of the retina and also carries away metabolic wastes from these areas
15. Where are cones located and what purpose do they serve for vision?
16. Where are rods located and what purpose do they serve for vision? Most highly concentrated in the retina outside the macula lutea. More sensitive and function only in dim light, night and peripheral vision; images are blurry and only in shades of gray.
17. List the “basics” of the following vision abnormalities: myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, cataracts, glaucoma, conjunctivitis, color-blindness, night-blindness, macular degeneration. Myopia: means nearsighted, eyeball is too long, distant objects focused in front of retina, image striking retina is blurred. Hyperopia: means farsighted, eyeball is too short, lens too thin or too stiff, nearby objects are focused behind retina, image striking the fovea is blurred. Astigmatism: irregular curvature in parts of the cornea or lens, causes blurry image Cararact: clouding of lens due to aging, diabetes mellitus, heavy smoking, frequent exposure to intense...
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