THE BIOLOGY OF MIND
1. Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology. 2. Describe the structure of a neuron, and explain how neural impulses are generated. 3. Describe how nerve cells communicate, and discuss the impact of neurotransmitters and drugs on human behavior. 4. Identify the major divisions of the nervous system and describe their functions, noting the three types of neurons that transmit information through the system. 5. Contrast the simplicity of the neural pathways involved in reflexes with the complexity of neural networks. 6. Identify and describe several techniques for studying the brain. 7. Describe the functions of the brainstem, thalamus, cerebellum, and limbic system. 8. Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe the sensory and motor functions of the cortex. 9. Discuss the importance of the association areas, and describe how damage to several different cortical areas can impair language functioning. 10. Discuss the capacity of the brain to reorganize following injury or illness. 11. Describe research on the split brain, and discuss what it reveals regarding normal brain functioning. 12. Discuss the relationships among brain organization, right- and left-handedness, and physical health. 13. Describe the nature and functions of the endocrine system and its interaction with the nervous system.
• Neuron consists of a cell body and branching fibers: The dendrites receive information from sensory receptors or other neurons, and the axons pass that information along to other neurons. A layer of fatty cells, called the myelin sheath *, insulates the fibers of some neurons and helps speed their impulses.
• A neural impulse fires when the neuron is stimulated by pressure, heat, light, or chemical messages from adjacent neurons. Received signals trigger an impulse only if the excitatory...
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