The Brain and Nervous System

Topics: Brain, Nervous system, Neuron Pages: 4 (1468 words) Published: March 17, 2013
Page 1 of 5

The Brain and the Nervous System
The human brain and the nervous system are essential for human life. They run the autonomic and conscious processes of the body. All of the body organs and processes independent that not conscious of are controlled by the brain. Being one of the most important of the body when issues there must be immediate solutions or the entire body will shut down. The brain is fragile and has huge functions in the body so it must be taken care of, but if not treatment and tests are there.

The human body contains billions of neurons. They are found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. No two neurons are identical in form; the numerous kinds of neurons differ widely in size and shape. Many have globe-shaped or pyramid-shaped cell bodies; short, branching dendrites; and single, long axons that branch only at the ends. Neurons may be classified by the direction in which they carry nerve impulses. Afferent, or sensory, neurons carry nerve impulses to the brain or spinal cord. A stimulus may initiate the impulses directly in an afferent neuron. The body also has many sensitive cells called receptors that react easily to stimuli and initiate impulses in the afferent neurons with which they are in contact. There are many types of headaches; some can be serious but most are not and are generally treated with analgesics.

The brain is made up of many specialized areas that work together. The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements begin in the cortex. The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Basic functions like breathing and sleep are controlled here. The basal ganglia are a cluster of structures in the center of the brain. The basal ganglia coordinate messages between multiple other brain areas. The cerebellum is at the base and the back of the brain. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance. The brain is also divided into several...
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