short answer questions for Lecture Exam 4

Topics: Nervous system, Muscle, Brain Pages: 7 (1331 words) Published: July 7, 2015
Sample ‘short answer’ questions for Lecture Exam 4 (Final Exam)

(1) Briefly describe the meninges and spaces that surround the spinal cord. Meningeal Branch:
Tiny, reenters vertebral canal, innervates meninges and blood vessels

(2) Distinguish among exteroceptors, interoceptors and proprioceptors. Exteroceptors:
Respond to stimuli arising outside body
Receptors in the skin for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature Most special sense organs (vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste, smell) Interoceptors:
Respond to stimuli arising in viscera and blood vessels
Sensitive to chemical changes, tissue stretch, and temperature changes Sometimes their activity causes us to feel pain, discomfort, hunger, or thirst but usually unaware of their workings Proprioceptors:

Like interoceptors, respond to internal stimuli, however their location is restricted Respond to stretch in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue coverings of bones and muscles Inform brain of one’s movements depending on stretch of organs

(3) Compare and contrast phasic and tonic adaptation. Be able to provide one example of a receptor for each. Phasic:
Fast adapting
Bursts of impulses at the beginning and end of stimulus
Report changes in external and internal environment
Examples: Receptors for pressure, touch, and smell
Tonic:
Sustained response that adapt slowly or not at all
Examples: nociceptors and most proprioceptors (protective importance of their information)

(4) Briefly describe the anatomy of a muscle spindle (Figure 13.16). Intrafusal muscle fibers:
Modified skeletal muscle fibers enclosed in connective tissue capsule The central regions lack myofilaments and are non-contractile 2 types of afferent endings send sensory input from the central region to the CNS (stimulated by stretch) The ends contain actin and myosin filaments that are contractile regions The ends are innervated by gamma (γ) fibers that arise from motor neurons in the ventral horn of spinal cord Extrafusal muscle fibers:

effector fibers of the skeletal muscle
Alpha (α) motor neurons stimulate the extrafusal muscle fibers to contract The muscle spindle is stretched (excited) in one of the 2 ways: External stretch: by applying external force (carrying weight) Internal stretch: by activating γ motor neurons that stimulate distal ends to contract, thereby stretching the middle of spindle

(5) List the steps involved in the patellar reflex.
(1) Tapping the patellar ligament stretches the quadriceps and excites its muscle spindles. (2) Afferent impulses travel to the spinal cord where the synapses occur with motor neurons and interneuron’s. (3) The motor neurons send activating impulses to the quadricepts causing it to contract, extending the knee (4) The interneuron’s make inhibitory synapses with ventral horn neurons that prevent the antagonist muscles (hamstrings) from resisting the contraction of quadriceps.

(6) List the receptors (for neurotransmitters) and effectors of the autonomic nervous system. Release neurotransmitter Norepinephrine (NE)
– Most sympathetic postganglionic axons
• Exception: sympathetic postganglionic fibers secrete ACh at sweat glands Effectors: Smooth Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, Glands
Receptors: collinergenic, Agerogenic-Agerogenic, Cholorgenic-Nicotene and Mucous

(7) How are neurotransmitter effects of Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) different from that of Somatic Nervous System. (Chapter 14 - Powerpoint slide # 5; Figure 14.2) Preganglionic fibers release Ach

Postganglionic fibers release norepinephrine or Ach at effectors [norepinephrine secreted by most sympathetic and Ach secreted by parasympathetic] Effect is either stimulatory or inhibitory, depending on type of receptors

(8) List the structures are only innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. Sweat glands, arrector pili, adipose tissue, adrenal medulla, kidneys (9) Describe the structure of the conjunctiva and state its...
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