Psychology Final Review

Topics: Sleep, Nervous system, Cerebrum Pages: 37 (7674 words) Published: November 26, 2014
Psychology Final Review
Part 1
What is Psychology?
The study of the mind/psyche/mental processes and behaviour
The symbol is the butterfly (human mortal in Greek myths named Psyche) Psychology is an objective study
Three Fundamental Laws of Science
1. Define our variables
2. Observe our variables
3. Measure/quantify our variables
B.F Skinner’s theory that we can infer behaviour and measure it

Experimental Psychology
Late 1800’s in Germany
Basic principles of experimentation used to explain psychological phenomena Edward Titchener’s structuralism- basic structures of the mind Introspection: participant self reflects on the contents of their consciousness- highly unreliable because of its subjective qualities Functionalism: developed by William James, concerned with functions, not whether something is physical or not- subjective Clinical Psychology

Counselling and psychotherapy
Sigmund Freud- 1940s USA
Applied: applying knowledge of basic fundamental (experimental) psychology Schools: cognitive, biological (neuroscience), behavioural, social, psychoanalytical, phenomenological

Schools of Psychology
Cognitive
Cognitive: uses measures like performance and decision-time to infer hypothetical brain functions Cognitive Neuroscience: biological methods to study cognitive activity 1800s-1900s
Study of higher mental functions such as consciousness, memory, attention, decision making, and language (lexical decision task) Infers hypothetical mental states of information with processing based on current response behaviour patterns/performance Cannot directly observe these things- can be inferred through experiments Semantic Decision Task: once a word is already available in memory we react quicker to it, inferring the meaning of it Biological

Brain, neuropsychology
Measures actual mental events by monitoring brain activity
Manipulating to see effect of it on brain activity, which responds to stimuli, and determines the effect on psychology Behavioural
Cognitive psychology was banned- came back when Skinner died Psychology must be objective and all events must be observable, like behaviour Behaviourism: all behaviour can be explained by consequences of behaviour and we learn to repeat behaviour that has been reinforced Cannot be defined, observed, or measured, therefore it is deemed unscientific Deterministic: philosophy, no free will but all matters are predetermined by consequential events and unconscious drives Social

Study of environment and its effects
Sociobiology: genetic influences on social behaviour, we act the way we do because of the principles of evolution Psychoanalytical
Sigmund Freud
Role of unconscious in determining our behaviour
Repressed emotions and behaviour (mostly sexual)
If feelings became prominent in real life they would be too horrific The Differences
Psychoanalyst: psychoanalysis
Psychiatrist: theory that mental disorders/psychological disorders are mental illnesses that everything deserves a label Clinical Psychologist: abnormal behaviour may not be an illness, these things can change through counselling Experimental Psychology: researcher

Phenomenological: humanistic theories, unique human quality of behaviour, main focus is subjective Biggest Issues: stability vs. change, rationalist vs. irrationality, nature vs. nurture

Scientific Method
Epistemology
Methods of obtaining knowledge:
Divine insight- faith from God and religious things
Pure logic and thought- can deduce all knowledge if you are logical enough, you don’t need science of faith, but merely facts Scientific Manipulation- using science only and the scientific method Make a hypothesis that can be wrong and can be replicated

Observations and Correlations
Change in one variable is associated with change in another but this doesn’t necessarily mean that one causes the other to happen Correlation: statistical measure of the extent of a relationship between two variables This allows prediction

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