*A person is an information unit
Receptors (sensory) receive information and relay it to interneurons (between neurons) that process info. Person transmits info through effectors. Basic effectors are hormonal secretions and movement. *Receptors (receive) Interneurons (process) Effectors (transmit) *A person is a computer made out of meat.
Behaviorism- you learn to be the person you are, persons are products of learning. Conditioning processes- (learning) molded, modified, or adapted to the environment. Molding- body is a lump of clay; environment is the “shaper”. Personhood is shaped by the environment (life). Voluntary- behavior you can start and stop on command. Involuntary- behavior that you cannot start and stop on command. Involuntary (Classical Conditioning, Respondent Conditioning) PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING because of Ivan Pavlov
Pavlov was not a psychologist but a physiologist (digestive physiology with gastric secretions) Work with dogs
PSYCH NOTES 9/30
Pavlovian Conditional Responses.
Unconditional stimulus (UCS)- unlearned stimulus, environmental event that automatically produces a specific behavior without any learning at all. Unconditioned response (UCR)- unlearned response, behavior automatically produced by the unconditioned stimulus Condition stimulus (CS)- learned stimulus, neutral environmental event that comes to produce a behavior like the UCR by being paired with the UCS UCS-food UCR- salivation (relationship) Bell is the CS. Pavlov would ring a bell which eventually became associated with food. Bell, food, salivation. Bell, food, salivation. Bell -- salivation Conditioned response (CR)- learned response, behavior produced by the CS after conditioning has occurred.
Extinction- unconditioning, gradual elimination of a conditioned response through removal of the environmental controls of that response. CS is presented and never followed by the UC. (Bell, no food salvation. Bell, no food, salivation. Bell, no food, little salivation…eventually no salivation) Spontaneous recovery- sudden reappearance of a previously distinguished response. Generalization- spread of a behavior learned in one environment to other similar environments. Boss- Fear (you don’t know why) this is called generalization Discrimination- opposite of generalization, learning to display different behaviors to different stimulus. Act diff in Wal-Mart than you do in school. Example:
Dad Beat Fear
Even when he doesn’t drink you are still afraid that he will hurt you Fear is natural reaction to dad
Mom Comforting Calm
Mom comes in and you are calm even though she had a bad day
Classical conditioning is about your emotions.
PSYCH NOTES 10/1
Radical behaviorist- understands the stimulus and response between environmental events (SR) stimulus response approach. S R
S- behaviors are just products of stimulus environment
R- persons are just collections of behaviors
Second kind of conditioning: operant, instrumental, or Skinnerian conditioning Law of Effect: E.L. Thorndike, behavior is controlled by its consequences or effects. Reinforcement- response strengthening process occurs when a behavior is strengthened by the stimulus that follows it.
B. F. Skinner- operant chamber or Skinner box. Essentially you work for food. Shaping- gradual reinforcement of behavior toward a target response. Successive approximations- behavior that is closer and closer to the target response
Stimuli is either presented or removed
Responses are either strengthened or weakened
Psych Notes 10/4
Schedules of Reinforcement- rules that specify the relationship between responding and reinforcement
Continuous (simplest)- each response is reinforced
Partial- only some responses are reinforced.
4 most famous schedules of partial reinforcement:
*Reinforcement is made available...
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