Chapter 2- Neuroscience and biological foundations
Glial Cells (three types): Make up about 90% of the brain’s total cells. They also supply nutrients and oxygen, perform clean up tasks, and insulate one neuron from another so that their neural messages are not scrambled. Oligodedreocytes: helps to create the myelin sheath. Purpose speed up communication in the brain. Insulate axons. Makes Neural transmissions. Microglia: Special immune cells in the brain. They can detect unhealthy and damaged neurons and therefore, they can help in removing those damaged cells.
- detect viruses and bacteria in the brain
- Chew them up and attack foreigners
Astrocytes: The rising star of the brain
- gained a lot more attention
- they’re their own boss/have their own territory— don’t rely on other cells
- gives instructions to other neurons on how to function or where to go.
- Provides nutrients to neurons
- Appear to be in all brain function
- Receptive to neuronal cells and newly stem cells— we may find cure to cognitive
deficits such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and other forms of deficits including dementia
- Also may appear to thoughts— cerebral cortex high cognitive functions. Structure of a neuron
Dendrites: receive information from other cells.On dendrites you have receptors— little openings. When a neuron is not stimulated or an action potential it is considered to be at rest or polarized or impermeable— nothing. When a neuron receives an action potential it is found to be depolarized and permeable. When a neuron is at rest it has negative molecules. When a neuron is in action it has positive molecules. How does this shift happen? Because of permeability changes there’s this constant switching between positive and negative and it occurs in the axon of the neuron. Cell Body: receives information from dendrites, and if enough stimulation is received the message is passed on to the axon. Contains the DNA and the nucleus. Axon: Carries neuron’s message to other body cells. Nodes of Ranvier—nerve stop where they get recharged. Myelin Sheath: Covers the axon of some neurons to insulate and help speed neural impulses. Terminal buttons or axon terminals: of axon from junctions with other cells and real ease chemicals called neurotransmitters. The sacks are filled with neurotransmitters. Activity inside vs. outside of a neuron
Activity inside a neuron=electrical one
Activity outside=chemical one
Action potential: The process of neural communication begins with the neuron itself, when the dendrites and cell body receive electrical “messages.” These messages move along the axon in the form of a neural impulse, or action potential. Major Neurotransmitters
a. Serotonin: Regulates our mood—impulsivity, sleep, aggression, appetite, and emotional judgment. Carbohydrates increase serotonin.
High levels of Serotonin—> OCD
Low levels of Serotonin—> Depression, eating disorders,
Anti-social—> Serial killers, psychopaths, cat killers people who do dangerous
and risky jobs—> have MAO
b. Acetylcholine (AcH): inhibitory affects—> slow down or excite, exacerbate an effect
Muscle action, learning, memory, REM sleep, emotion.
Prevents us to faint —> almost pass out…elevator heart fbeating too fast
c. Dopamine: responsible for motor controlling and planning—Alertness, motivation, movement, reinforcement, acts in the reward center of the brain (limbic system), mental concentration and sex drive.
Low levels of Dopamine— Parkinson’s Disease
Basal Gangli————————————Substancia Nigra (highly involved)
central located in the brain. When
Dopamine receptor worn out worsening of
Higher levels of Dopamine: Schizophrenia (Split mind— confuses reality with
d. Norepinephrine (NE): Alertness, awareness, mental arousal, elevate our mood, stimulates the intake of carbohydrates, vigilance, cautious, worry, fine tuning the clarity of our...
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