Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology Exam Study Guide

Topics: Neuron, Action potential, Nervous system Pages: 25 (4685 words) Published: April 20, 2014
Exam 3
1. Interneuron transmission
a. synapse - junction between neuron and other cells (neuron or effecors) 1. she is using junction to make a distinction from synaptic cleft ii. electrical synapes
1. Gap junctions
2. protien channels that connect both cells
3. seen in insects for rapid communication
4. a lot faster
iii. chemical synapese
1. - gap between cells
2. the classical synapse
3. 20-30nm
iv. Synaptic cleft
1. presynaptic fiber will always an axon
a. presynaptic knob - an enlargment at the end of axon
b. filled with vesicles full of neurotransmittler
c.
2. Post synaptic fiber
a. can be any part of another neuron or effector
i. dendrited, soma, axons
ii. effectors like muscles
b. Axosomatic synapse - axon toe soma
c. axoaxonic synapses - axon to axon
d. axodendrite synapses - axon to dendrite
v. 2 types of synaptic transmission
1. excitatory
a. post synaptic fiber will fire
b. gland cell will secrete
c. the muscle will flex
d. an action potential will open calcium gated channels in the knob i. Ca will flow into cell
ii. they cause vesicle to go to edge and burst
e. The neurotransmitter will attach to ion channel (post synaptic membrane) and opens it i. the lingand gated channel is permeable to both Na and K
f. calcium dependent exocytosis
g. Neurotransmitter effect are terminated by reuptake through transmitter proteins enzymatic degredation or diffusion away from the synapse i. can be taken back up
ii. destroyed by enzyme
iii. or diffuse away from synapse (rare due to glial cells)
2. inhibitory
a. inhibit post synaptic fiber
b. particularly important in the CNS
i. your brain would fry without these
c. hyperpolarization
i. greater than -70mV ICF and ECF voltage difference
ii. counter acts Action potiential so neuron remain in refractory period iii. Presynaptic fiber
1. blockage of Ca gate
a. you cannot get the vesicles to move down to the end of knob iv. postsynaptic fiber
1. just open up the K gates
a. causing ICF to become more negative
2. open Cl gates
a. moves into cell also making the ICF negative
b. Specific neurotransmitters
i. we won't cover too many of these
ii. Acetylcholine (Ach)
1. neuromuscular junction
2. action potential triggers Ca relase from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum 3. the voltage change that takes place at the neuromuscular junction can also reach the sarcoplasic reticulum (they have voltage gated calcium changes) 4. Achrectptor protein in prostsynaptic sarcoplasim

a. five subunits
b. alpha subunit bind with Ach
c. both Na and K can diffuse through
5. Ach ↔ choline + acetyl CoA
a. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) degrades the Ach
i. left to right
ii. nerve gases usually deavtivates actetylcholinesterase (AchE inhibitors) 1. no Ach gets broken down
2. the Ach wiill not get removed from the ion channel which leaves it closed 3. the diaphram is particularly affected
b. Acetyltransferase helps synthesize Ach
i. right to left
6. acetylcholine as an inhibitoy neurtransmitter
a. must change the post synaptic receptor
b. cardiac muscle and smooth muscles
c. activates postsynaptic K and Cl channels
i. hyperpolarization
d. vagus nerve
i. helps to control heart rate
ii. brady cardia since it releases Ach on cardiac muscle
iii. Specific neurotransmitters
1. norepinephrine/epinephrine
a. neurotransmitters and hormones
b. some peripheral nervous system
c. excitatory or inhibitor
d. ionotropic receptors
i. when you get neurotranmitters the ion cahnnel opens
ii. Ach and Neuromuscular junction
e. Metabotropic receptors
i. G-coupled protiens
1. has a GDP
ii. more complex
iii. activeates adenylate cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP (2nd messanger) iv. three things can happen
1. activateon of ion channels
2. activate certain genes
3. activate enzymes
a. kinases
v. Ach at cardiac/visceral junction
vi. noorepinephrine/epinephrine
vii. look at slide 19
viii. universal cellular system
2. Good drug reading
a. Box on pp....
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