Neck Injuries in Car Collision

Topics: Whiplash, Vertebral column, Nervous system Pages: 19 (6930 words) Published: April 27, 2013
Accident Analysis and Prevention 32 (2000) 167 – 175 www.elsevier.com/locate/aap

Neck injuries in car collisions — a review covering a possible injury mechanism and the development of a new rear-impact dummy Mats Y. Svensson a,*, Ola Bostrom b, Johan Davidsson a, Hans-Arne Hansson c, ¨ b Yngve Haland , Per Lovsund a, Anders Suneson d, Anette Saljo c ˚ ¨ ¨ ¨ Crash Safety Di6ision, Chalmers Uni6ersity of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden ¨ b Autoli6, Research, SE-447 83 Vargarda, Sweden ˚ ˚ c Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Uni6ersity of Gothenburg, SE-413 90 Goteborg, Sweden ¨ d Di6ision of Human Sciences, FOA Defence Research Establishment, SE-172 90 Sundbyberg, Sweden Accepted 21 July 1999 a

Abstract A review of a few Swedish research projects on soft tissue neck injuries in car collisions is presented together with some new results. Efforts to determine neck injury mechanisms was based on a hypothesis stating that injuries to the nerve root region in the cervical spine are a result of transient pressure gradients in the spinal canal during rapid neck bending. In experimental neck trauma research on animals, pressure gradients were observed and indications of nerve cell membrane dysfunction were found in the cervical spinal ganglia. The experiments covered neck extension, flexion and lateral bending. A theoretical model in which fluid flow was predicted to cause the transient pressure gradients was developed and a neck injury criterion based on Navier-Stokes Equations was applied on the flow model. The theory behind the Neck Injury Criterion indicates that the neck injury occurs early on in the rearward motion of the head relative to the torso in a rear-end collision. Thus the relative horizontal acceleration and velocity between the head and the torso should be restricted during the early head-neck motion to avoid neck injury. A Bio-fidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID) was developed in several steps and validated against volunteer test results. The new dummy was partly based on the Hybrid III dummy. It had a new articulated spine with curvature and range of motion resembling that of a human being. A new crash dummy and a neck injury criterion will be very important components in a future rear-impact crash test procedure. © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Whiplash; Neck injury; Rear impact; Crash dummy; Spinal ganglia; Pig

1. Introduction The symptoms of injury following neck trauma in rear-end collisions include pain, weakness or abnormal responses in the parts of the body (mainly the neck, shoulders and upper back) that are connected to the central nervous system via the cervical nerve-roots. Vision disorder, dizziness, headaches, unconsciousness, and neurological symptoms in the upper extremities are other symptoms that have been reported (Deans et al., 1987; Hildingsson, 1991; Nygren et al., 1985; Spitzer et * Corresponding author. Tel.: + 46-31-7723644; fax: + 46-317723660. E-mail address: mys@mvd.chalmers.se (M.Y. Svensson)

al., 1995; Watkinson et al., 1991). The symptoms associated with soft-tissue neck injuries in frontal and side collisions appear to be very similar to those of rear-end collisions (Hildingsson, 1991). During a rear-end car collision the struck vehicle is subjected to a forceful forward acceleration and the car occupant is pushed forward by the seat-back. The head lags behind due to its inertia, forcing the neck into a swift extension motion. In a later phase, the head moves forward relative to the torso and may stop with a somewhat flexed neck posture. This head and neck motion, commonly called ‘whiplash motion’, has been described by Ono and Kanno (1993) among others. The term ‘whiplash’ has also been used in the literature for the neck motion in frontal and side collisions.

0001-4575/00/$ - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 0 0 1 - 4 5 7 5 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 8 0 - 9

168

M.Y. S6ensson et al. / Accident...

References: Aldman, B., 1986. An analytical approach to the impact biomechanics of head and neck. Proc. 30th Annual AAAM Conf, LC 64-1965, 439 – 454. Bostrom, O., Svensson, M.Y., Aldman, B. et al., 1996. A new neck ¨ injury criterion candidate — based on injury findings in the cervical spinal ganglia after experimental sagittal whiplash. SAE paper no. 1996-13-0009, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., pp. 123 –136. Bostrom, O., Krafft, M., Aldman B., Eichberger, A., Fredriksson, R., ¨ Haland, Y., Lovsund, P., Steffan, H., Svensson, M., Tingvall, C., ˚ ¨ 1997. Prediction of neck injuries in rear impacts based on accident data and simulations. SAE paper no. 1997-13-0016, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf, pp. 251 – 264. Breig, A., 1978. Adverse Mechanical Tension in the Central Nervous System. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm. Davidsson, J., Svensson, M.Y., Flogard, A., Haland, Y., Jakobsson, ˚ ˚ L., Linder, A., Lovsund, P., Wiklund, K., 1998a. BioRID I – a ¨ new biofidelic rear impact dummy. SAE paper no. 1998-13-0026, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., pp. 377 – 390. Davidsson, J., Deutscher, Hell, W., Linder, A., Lovsund, P., ¨ Svensson, M.Y., 1998b. Human volunteer kinematics in rear-end sled Collisions. SAE paper no. 1998-13-0020, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., pp. 289 – 302 Deans, G.T, Magalliard, J.N., Kerr, M., Rutherford, W.H., 1987. Neck sprain — a major cause of disability following car accidents. Injury 18, 10 – 12. Deng, Y.-C., 1989. Anthropomorphic dummy neck modelling and injury considerations. Accident Analysis & Prevention 21, 85– 100. Eichberger, A., Geigl, B.C., Moser, A., Fachbach, B., Steffan, H., Hell, W., Langwieder, K., 1996. Comparison of different car seats regarding head-neck kinematics of volunteers during rear-end impact. SAE paper no. 1996-13-0011. Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., Dublin, Ireland, pp. 153 – 164.
4. Conclusions This work has resulted in the finding of an injury that could explain many of the most common neck injury symptoms caused by car collisions. Indications of a new injury mechanism have been found that could explain how these injuries may be a result of transient pressure gradients in the spinal canal. The new neck injury criterion (NIC) predicts the risk of injury as a function of the head-neck motion, and the new biofidelic rear impact dummy BioRID offers a significantly more human like head-neck performance compared to earlier crash dummies in rear-end crash tests. Together these findings will contribute more effective development and testing of new car designs for improved neck protection, primarily in rear-end collisions, but possibly also in other impact directions.
Acknowledgements The injury mechanism study was supported by the Swedish Transport and Communications Research
M.Y. S6ensson et al. / Accident Analysis and Pre6ention 32 (2000) 167–175 Eichberger, A., Steffan, H., Geigl, B., Svensson M.Y., Bostrom, O., ¨ Leinzinger, P., Darok, M., 1998. Evaluation of the applicability of the neck injury criterion (NIC) in rear end impacts on the basis of human subject tests. SAE paper no. 1998-13-0022, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., Goteborg, Sweden, pp. 321–334. ¨ Eppinger, R., Kleinberger, M., Morgan, R., Khaewpong, N., Bandak, F., Haffner, M., 1994. Advanced Injury Criteria and Crash Evaluation Techniques., SAE paper no. 946027, Proc. 14th Int. Conf. on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington D.C., USA, pp. 144– 152. Estes, M.S., McElhaney, J.H., 1970. Response of brain tissue of compressive loading. American Society for Mechanical Engineers, Paper no. 70-BHF-13. Foret-Bruno, J.Y., Dauvilliers, F., Tarriere, C., Mack, P., 1991. Influence of the seat and head rest stiffness on the risk of cervical injuries in rear Impact. SAE paper no. 916126, Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, paper 91-S8-W-19, pp. 968–973, DOT HS 807 991, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington D.C., USA. Geigl, B.C., Steffan, H., Dippel., C., Muser, M.H., Walz, F., Svensson, M.Y., 1995. Comparison of head-neck kinematics during rear end impact between standard hybrid III, RID Neck, Volunteers and PMTO’s. SAE paper no. 1995-13-0018, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., Brunnen, Switzerland, pp. 261–270. Hildingsson, C., 1991. Soft tissue injury of the cervical spine. Umea ˚ University Medical Dissertations, New Series No 296, ISSN 03466612, ISBN 91-7174-546-7. Larder, D.R., Twiss, M.K., Mackay, G.M., 1985. Neck injury to car occupants using seat belts. SAE paper no. 1985-12-0011. Proc. 29th Ann. AAAM Conf., Washington D.C 64-1965, 153–168. Linder A., Jernstrom, C., Svensson, M.Y., Lovsund, P. 1998a. A ¨ ¨ mathematical model of an improved neck for a rear-end impact dummy. SAE paper no. 1998-13-0040, Proc. 1998 Int. IRCOBI. Conf. on the Biomechanics of Impacts, Goteborg, Sweden, pp. ¨ 553–556. Linder, A., Svensson, M.Y., Davidsson J., Flogard, A., Haland, Y., ˚ ˚ Jakobsson, L., Lovsund, P., Wiklund, K., 1998b. The new neck ¨ design for the rear-end impact dummy, BioRID I. SAE paper no. 1998-12-0011, Proc. 42nd AAAM Ann. Conf., Charlottsville, USA, pp. 179 – 192. Maimaris, C., Barnes, M.R., Allen, M.J., 1988. Whiplash injuries’ of the neck: a retrospective study. Injury 19, 393–396. McConnell, W.E., Howard, R.P., Guzman, H.M., Bomar, J.B., Raddin, J.H., Benedict, J.V., Smith, L.H., Hatsell, C.P., 1993. Analysis of Human Test Subject Responses to Low Velocity Rear End Impacts., SAE paper no. 930889, SP–975, pp. 21–30. Mertz, H.J., Patrick, L.M., 1967. Investigation of the Kinematics and Kinetics of Whiplash. SAE paper no. 670919. Proc. 11th STAPP Car Crash Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, SAE Inc., New York, USA LC67-22372, 267 – 317. Mertz, H.J., Patrick, L.M., 1971. Strength and Response of the Human Neck. SAE paper no. 710855. Proc. 15th Stapp Car Crash Conf., SAE Inc., New York LC67-22372, 207–255. , Nygren, A., Gustafsson, H., Tingvall, C., 1985. Effects of different types of headrests in rear-end collisions. SAE paper no. 856023, 10th Int. Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington D.C., USA, pp. 85–90. Olmarker, K., Rydevik, B., Holm, S., 1989. Edema formation in spinal nerve roots induced by experimental, graded compression — an experimental study on the pig cauda equina with special reference to differences in effects between rapid and slow onset of compression. Spine 14, 569–573. Ono, K., Kanno, M., 1993. Influences of the physical parameters on the risk to neck injuries in low impact speed rear-end collisions. SAE paper no. 1993-13-0014, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., Eind.
175
hoven, The Netherlands, pp. 201 – 212. 8 Ortengren, T., Hansson, H.-A., Lovsund, P., Svensson, M.Y., ¨ Suneson, A., Saljo, A., 1996. Membreane leakage in spinal gan¨ ¨ ´ glion nerve cells induced by experimental whiplash extension motion: a study in pigs. J. Neurotrauma 13, 171 – 180. Robbins, D.H., 1985. Antrophometry of motor vehicle occupants. Vol. 2, DOT HS 806 716, U. S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington D.C., USA. Schneider L.W., Ricci, L.L., Salloum, M.J., Beebe, M.S., King, A.I., Rouhana, S.W., Neathery, R.F., 1992. Design and development of an advanced ATD thorax system for frontal crash environments, Volume 1: Primary concept development. Report No. DOT HS 808 138, Department of Transportation, Washington D.C., USA. Scott, M.W., McConnell, W.E., Guzman, H.M., Howard, R.P., Bomar, J.B., Smith, H.L., Benedict, J.V., Raddin, J.H., Hatsell, C.P., 1993. Comparison of Human and ATD head kinematics during low-speed rear-end impacts. SAE paper 930094, SAE/SP93/945, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, Philadelphia, ISBN 1-56091-330-4, LC 92-63144. Spitzer, W.O., Skovron, M.L., Salmi, L.R. et al. (1995) Scientific monograph of the Quebec task force on whiplash-associated disorders: redifining ‘Whiplash’ and its management. Spine, (Suppl) 20. Sunderland, S., 1991. Nerve Injuries and their Repair. A Critical Appraisal. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh. Suneson, A., Hansson, H.-A., Seeman, T., 1987. Peripheral high-energy missile hits cause pressure changes and damage to the nervous system: experimental studies on pigs. J. Trauma 27, 782 – 789. Svensson, M.Y., Lovsund, P., 1992. A dummy for rear-end collisions¨ development and validation of a new dummy-neck. SAE paper 1992-13-0024, Proc. 1992 Int. IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact, Verona, Italy, pp. 299 – 310. Svensson, M.Y., 1993. Neck injuries in rear-end car collisions-sites and biomechanical causes of the injuries, test methods and preventive measures. Department of Injury Prevention, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, ISBN 91 – 7032-878-1. Svensson, M.Y., Aldman, B., Lovsund, P., Hansson, H.A., Seeman, ¨ 8 T., Suneson, A., Ortengren, T., (1993) Pressure effects in the spinal canal during whiplash extension motion – a possible cause of injury to the cervical spinal ganglia. SAE paper no. 1993-130013, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., Eindhoven, The Netherlands, pp.189 – 200. Svensson, M.Y., Aldman, B., Bostrom, O., Davidsson, J., Hansson, ¨ H.-A., Lovsund, P., Suneson, A., Saljo, A., 1998. Nerven¨ ¨ ¨ zellschaden bei Schleudertraumen. Tierexperimentelle Unter¨ suchungen. Orthopade 27, 820 – 826. ¨ Temming, J.; Zobel, R., 1998. Frequency and risk of cervical spine distortion injuries in passenger car accidents: significance of human factors data. SAE paper no. 1998-13-0015, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conf., pp. 219 – 234. Thunnissen, J.G.M., Ratingen, M.R., van; Beusenberg, M.C., Janssen, E.G., 1996. A dummy neck for low severity impacts. SAE paper no. 976161, Proc. Int. Conf. on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, paper 96-S10-O-12, NHTSA, Washington DC, USA. Watkinson, A., Gargan, M.F., Bannister, G.C., 1991. Prognostic factors in soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine. Injury 22, 307 – 309. Wismans, J., Spenny, C.H., 1984. Head – neck response in frontal flexion. SAE paper no. 841666. Proc. 28th STAPP Car Crash Conf., SAE/P-84/152 0-89883-7111, 161 – 172. Woolf, C.J, Shortland, P, Coggeshall, R.E., 1992. Peripheral nerve injury triggers central sprouting of myelinated afferents. Nature 355, 75 – 77.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Collisions Essay
  • Injury Essay
  • Cars Essay
  • Cars Essay
  • cns injuries Essay
  • Sports Injuries Essay
  • cars or no cars? Research Paper
  • collision Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free