ICT - AS - Notes (WJEC)

Topics: User interface, Computer storage, Data management Pages: 45 (2218 words) Published: February 9, 2015
Data can arise from :

Topic 1

Automatically taken
environmentally
measurements
Results of a survey

Results from an experiment

Business Transactions
Output from a
management information
system

Topic 1

Faster to
input
coded data

Sometimes
relies on
value
judgements

Coarsens
Data

Encoding
Data

Less typing
so less
likelihood
of RSI

Data takes
less space

Topic 2
Data
collection
Costs

Cost of Good
Quality
Information

• Financial – cost of
resources
• Human – cost of
training
• Time – collecting data
from customers

Data Entry
Costs

Processing
and
Maintenance
Cost

• Financial – cost of
typing
• Human -Training
• Time – Time taken to
key in data

• Financial – cost of
paying analysing staf
• Human – cost of
training
• Time – time to analyse
data to produce results

Topic 3

Easy to
understand

• No costly mistakes
Accuracy • Correct decisions
more likely

• Well presented
• Readable

• No wasted time
producing
Relevance
• No wasted time
reading

Quality of
Information
Up to
date

• Users will use info
User
Confidence • Users believe info
correct

Targeted

• Very specific
• Accuracy

• Data protection
act
• accuracy

Topic 3

How to find
information

On line
sources

• intranet
• internet

CD Rom

NON –
ICT
sources

• Paper invoices, bank
statements
• Reports
• directories
• Letters
• journals

Topic 3
Examples of information a manager
might need from the internet

Tax information to reduce
bills
Information about
competitors
Details about laws and
regulations businesses
might adhere to
Suppliers information

Statistical information for
planning
Details of venues for
meetings

Topic 4
Transcription

• Incorrectly marked
forms
• Keying in errors

input

When data
errors occur
Processing

Transmission

• Reduced by no
human
involvement
• Impossible to
eliminate
• Programming
errors
• Incorrect formulae
• Processing wrong
data

• Detect errors and
re-send
• Parity checks

Topic 4
Performed
by a
computer
program






Checks data is reasonable
Uses rules
Check data is sensible
Cannot eliminate all errors

Validation
Checks









Data type
length
File lookup
Cross field
Format
range
presence

When data
Validation
errors occur

Topic 4

Verification

Proof
Reading

Double
entry

Sending
back
printouts

• Carefully reading what
has been typed
• Checking against source
documents
• Ensuring no keying in
errors

• Two people key in the
same data
• Only if both sets of data
the same is it accepted

• Ask customer to check
data
• Any errors are notified

Topic 5
Repetitive
processing
The ability to
produce
diferent
output
formats

Speed of
processing

Advantages
if ICT over
manual
methods

Speed of data
communicatio
ns

accuracy

Data storage
capacity

Speed of
searching

Topic 5
Hardware

• RAM
• Processor
speed

Software

Factors
afecting the
efficiency of
DP systems

Input

• GIGO
• The
requiremen
ts for
output

• Appropriate
ness of
software
• Errors and
bugs

Operating
System

Communication

• Requiremen
ts or
applications
and
software
• Availability

• Consultation
during
development

Topic 5
Speed of
implemen
tation

Limitation
s of
software

Cost

Support

Poor
communi
cation
with user

Insufficient
testing
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