Human Biology

Topics: Nervous system, Action potential, Neuron Pages: 7 (1983 words) Published: October 15, 2013
Task 1
The central nervous
The nervous system is a complex network of nerve cells and nerve bundle that spread throughout the body. Structurally, the central nervous system is the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system is the main control for all the other nervous system and is divided into Peripheral nervous system and Central nervous system each, possess unique structural and functional characteristics. The peripheral nervous system consists of different network of neurons system that is divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system carries sensory and motor information to and from receptors all over the body. It is mainly concerned with skeletal muscle and coordination of voluntary movement. The automatic regulates the activity of all involuntary or automatic functions. It consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic division. The sympathetic prepare the body for action such as fight-or-flight stress response while the parasympathetic system slow things down, regulating general maintenance response while, the body is at rest. Diagram one explain more about the organisation of the nervous system b) Eating of peach

Cerebrum in the central nervous system
Seeing the peach through signals received from photoreceptors Responsible for the decision of eating and
Smelling the peach through the nose

Peripheral - Somatic nervous system is responsible for voluntary actionResponsible for the voluntary action of lifting the peach chewing and swallowing the peach
Autonomic – parasympathetic nervous systemStimulate saliva when food is seen Increase gastro-intestinal and peristalsis activity for the digestion of the peach

Task 2
a) Cerebral cortex is the outer layer of cerebrum that is responsible for all conscious activity such as vision, touch, hearing, taste, smell as well as the control of voluntary movements, reasoning, emotion, language, personality traits, thinking, self-consciousness and memory. Cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain. It is divided into two tightly folded halves and is responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance. Corpus callosum is a collection of large bundle of nerve axons, connecting the left and right hemispheres of the brain. The left hemispheres control language and thinking, the right hemispheres control the face recognition and visual imagery Pituitary gland has two main lobes: the anterior and posterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary produces hormones that stimulate other glands such as thyrotrophin that stimulate thyroid to produce thyroxin. The posterior pituitary is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk. It store hormones that are produce by hypothalamus such as oxytocin, that stimulate contraction of the uterus during childbirth and ejection of milk. Pons- this is below the mid-brain. It relays messages from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord. B) The cerebellum is responsible for the movement of the legs. It coordinates the skeletal muscles in the legs, to keep balance of the body in order to walk in a straight line. The cerebrum is responsible in the conscious activity of walking in a straight line and also involve in the voluntary movement of the muscle in the leg for walking . Task3

Sensory neurons transmit impulses from sensory receptors in the skin or internal organs toward or into the central nervous system. Their cell bodies are located in sensory ganglia outside the CNS and their peripheral processes are often very long. The receptive ending of some sensory neurons are naked and function as sensory receptors, but many sensory neuron endings bear receptors that include other cell types. Motors neurons carry impulses away from the CNS to the effector organs of the body periphery. Motor neurons are multipolar and the cell bodies are located in the CNS. The motor neurons dendrites are short and with long axon. Motor neuron is mostly inside the PNS, but only the...
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