HOW DID THE BLACK PLAGUE AFFECT EUROPE

Topics: Black Death, Bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis Pages: 10 (2354 words) Published: April 12, 2015
Introduction
This research will provide a detailed map about what happened in Europe far before modernization took place, specifically the never- forgotten pandemic of the century known to man as the Black Plague. This outbreak has been the main source of suffering for so many Europeans centuries ago, affecting not only the people but the whole country itself. Ranging from economic to personal, the Black Plague has sought to destroy each and every Englishman alive. All of which started from a simple virus that was not curable at that time, and by the next moment, millions of souls were consumed. It wasted almost half of the living populace in England, and became the prime suspect for so many violent outbursts and famine all around. Undeniably one of the most deadly events that took place that will forever haunt the people for all time. I. The Black Death

A. The Origin of the Unknown
The Black Death is known as one of the deadliest and widespread pandemics in history. It peaked in Europe between 1348 and 1350 and is thought to have been a bubonic plague outbreak caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium. It reached the Crimea in 1346 and most likely spread via fleas on black rats that travelled on merchant ships. It soon spread through the Mediterranean and Europe. The Black Death is thought have destroyed 30% to 60% of Europe's population - experts say it took 150 years for Europe to recover its population size. The plague came back several times until the 19th century, when it left Europe for good. Most victims died with two to seven days of becoming infected. The authors in this new study say the plague evolved around the area of China over 2000 years ago and spread globally several times as deadly pandemics. They compared 17 complete plague genome sequences as well as 933 variable DNA sites on a unique worldwide collection of bacterial strains (plague isolates), allowing them to follow pandemics that took place in history around the world, and to work out the age of different waves of them. The majority of pandemics were associated with known major historical events, such as the Black Death. As none of the collections of isolates from individual scientific institutions were globally representative, the scientists explained that in order to understand the historical sources of plagues, all the institutions would have to work together. In order to prevent bioterrorism, access to Yersinia pestis - the bacterium known to be the cause of the plagues - is seriously restricted; therefore, assembling a comprehensive collection of them is impossible. An international team of scientists from the UK, USA, Ireland, Germany, Madagascar, China and France had to collaborate for a decentralized analysis of DNA samples. Their findings reveal a detailed history of the pandemic spread of a bacterial disease in a way never seen before. Pandemic infectious diseases have affected humans ever since we set foot on this planet, the authors explain. They have shaped the form of civilizations. The researchers reveal that the plague bacillus developed near or in China, and via multiple epidemics was transmitted through several different routes, such as into West Asia through the Silk Road and Africa between 1409 and 1433 by Chinese travelers under explorer Zheng He. The Black Death made its way through Asia, Europe and Africa from 1347 to 1351, and probably brought the world's then 450 million population down to 350 million. Approximately 50% of China's population perished, while Europe's went down by a third and Africa by an eighth. B. Misconceptions

Black Plague is named from the virus Yersinia Pestis , Bubonic Plague, and the Pneumonic Plague, while the term Black Death was given as a title for the deaths that have swept on Europe during the Black Plague. II. The Pandemic Outbreak

A. Yersinia Pestis
Formerly Pasteurella pestis is a Gram-negative rod-shaped coccobacillus, a facultative anaerobic bacterium that can infect humans and...

References: (Ed: D.S.) Courie, L. W. The Black Death and Peasant 's Revolt. New York: Wayland Publishers, 1972; Strayer, J. R., ed. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. New York: Charles Scribner 's Sons. Vol. 2. pp. 257-267.
Hirschleifer J. (1966). Disaster and Recovery: The Black Death in Western Europe. Retrieved from http://www.medievalists.net/2010/09/25/disaster-and-recovery-the-black-death- in-western-europe/
Hollister C. W. (2000). The Making of England. 55 B.C. to 1399 (4th ed.), 12, 267-275.
Nordqvist, C. (2010). Medical News Today. Origins Of The Black Death Traced Back To China, Gene Sequencing Has Revealed. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/206309.php
Richard K. S. (20110). The Global Impacts of the Black Death. The Global Pandemic of the Black Death Impacted Population. Retrieved from http://geography.about.com/od/culturalgeography/a/Impacts-Of-The-Black-Death.htm
The Black Death and Religious Impact. Retrieved from http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/churchhistory220/lectureten/blackdeath/religious%20impact%20page.htm
Yersinia Pestis. (n.d.). Retrieved March 16, 2014 from the Wikipedia Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yersinia_pestis
Conclusion
To put it in simple terms, the Black Plague caused a great devastation to Europe and thus ended the story of the Medieval Period. The pandemic did tremendous damage to the areas that were affected. It became the beginning of many controversies, economic crisis and revolts that eventually led to so many amendments in their political system. Many lives were lost in the battle that also created problems in every way possible. The status of the Englishmen gradually changed as the time goes by. Their recovery was not as swift as it may seem, they found it difficult to do so. But all bad things come to an end, and later on they have regained their pride to hold the flag that had once fallen in the depths of darkness, just enough to refine their countrymen from another new era. The plague may be gone, but it will always remain a memory to the people, and a history to the whole world.
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