Genetics and Genomics

Topics: Nervous system, Parasympathetic nervous system, Brain Pages: 3 (989 words) Published: June 10, 2014
1. One patient has a grade I tumor of the lung, while another patient has a grade IV tumor of the lung. Explain how tumors in various stages are similar and how they differ. (1 point) Both stage I and stage IV lung cancer is presented with cellular differentiation, loss of normal tissue structure, as well as irregular size and shape of the nucleus. Normal cells are able to divide and die cancer cells are pile up on top of each other forming a tumor. The staging and grading of cancer depends on evaluation of size of the tumor, degree of invasion extent of spread and differentiation of cells. Stage I lung cancer is a tumor less than 3cm ,has no evidence of invasion, well differentiated, whereas stage IV tends to be least differentiated have most anaplasia, can be any size and have spread to other organs. The similarity sometimes noted in symptoms that patient is presenting with. Two patients may present with same symptoms and have two different stages. However the survival rate is the same regardless of stage.  

2. If a patient has breast cancer, how would angiogenesis and invasion influence tumor growth and metastasis? (1 point) Angiogenesis is a physiological process of developing new blood vessels. This normal process is not only supplying the normal cells but also nourishes the cancer cells. Small cancers are unable to develop new blood vessels, however larger cancers can. The process of invasion occurs between the beginning of the event and development of obvious tumor, some mutated cells die while others reproduce. The tumor at this point continues to grow and reproduce. Breasts tissue is very vascular and very close located to lymph nodes. Cells break off from the original tumor and travel through the lymphatic system and blood stream, to the other organs where they produce secondary tumors.

 
Chapter 14:
3. Compare and contrast the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. (0.75 point)  Sympathetic nervous system originates in a...
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