1. Describe the roles of each of the glial cells found in the CNS and PNS There is 4 types of glial cells in the CNS:
Astrocytes – Help for the blood – brain barrier, regulate tissue fluid composition, form a structural network , assist neuronal development and occupy the space of dying neurons Ependymal cells – These cells have slender processes that branch extensively to make contact with our glial cells in the surrounding nervous tissue Microglia – They are classified as phagocytes in the immune system. These cells wander through the CNS and replicate in response to an infection. They protect against microorganisms and other potentially harmful substances. Oligodendrocytes – The protective covering around the axon insulates it and prevents the passage of ions through the axonal membrane. This allows for faster action potential propagation within the CNS. There is 2 types of glial cells in the PNS:
Schwann cells – Form neurilemma around all PNS nerve fibers and myelin around most of them; and in regeneration of damaged nerve fibers. Satellite cells - Surround somas of neurons in the ganglia; provide electrical insulation and regulate chemical environment of neurons.
2. Describe the structure and function of a neuron
Structure – axon, dendrites, motor neuron, myelin sheath, nerve, neurilemma, nodes of ranriver, Schwann cells, sensory neuron, synapse. Functions – transmits electrical nerve impulses to carry information from one part of the body to another.
3. Distinguish between the different types of neurons; unipolar, bipolar and multipolar. Unipolar -
4. Describe the steps involved in the release of a neurotransmitter from a presynaptic axon.
5. Describe the sequence of events that leads to the generation of an action potential.
6. Distinguish between salutatory and continuous conduction.
7. Describe the basic organization of a peripheral nerve. Identify the names and locations of the nerve plexuses 8. Distinguish between the...
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