Evaluate and distinguish between the anatomical and functional divisions of the nervous system. Anatomical-CNS (brain and spinal cord) interpret sensations from the PNS and send motor responses to the PNS, controls consciousness, intelligence, memory, learning and emotions. PNS (sensory nerves, sense organs) deliver sensory info to the CNS and motor commands from the CNS, and control skeletal muscle contractions. Functional: Sensory (afferent) receives sensory info from the PNS receptors and transmits to the CNS. Motor (efferent) sends the impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands. Devise a detailed description of the structure and functions of each organelle in a typical neuron. Cell body contains the nucleus. Dendrites pick up the nerve impulses and passes them to the cell body. Axon carries the impulses away from the cell body. Sensory neurons carry impulses from the sense organs to the CNS. Relay neurons transmit impulses within the CNS. Motor neurons transmit impulses from the CNS to muscles to carry out the appropriate responses. Distinguish the locations and functions of the four neuroglial cells in CNS and the two neuroglial cells in PNS. CNS-“ Astrocytes are restricted to the brain and spinal cord, have a starlike appearance. They maintain an appropriate chemical environment from neuronal signaling.” (Sinauer, 2008). Oligodendrocytes lay down myelin around some axons, “myelin has important effects on the speed of action potential” (sinauer, 2008). Microglial cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are primarily scavenger cells (remove cellular debris from injury sites or normal cell turnover). PNS-“Schwann cells provide myelination to peripheral neurons, they also perform phagocytic functions and clear cellular debris allowing regrowth of PNS neurons.”(Boundless, 2014). Satellite Glial Cells resemble the astrocytes, assist with regulating the external chemical environment, interconnected by gap junctions and respond to ATP, and are very...
References: Quizlet. 2015. Nervous System- Anatomical Divisions. http://quizlet.com/20942150/nervous-system-anatomical-divisions-flash-cards/
W. H. Freeman and Company. 2000. Molecular Cell Biology 4th edition. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21535/
Sinauer Associates, Inc. 2001. Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Neuroglial cells. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10869/
Boundless. “Neuroglia of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).” Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Boundless, 14 Nov. 2014. http://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/nervous-tissue-11/neuroglia-110/neuroglia-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system-pns-605-1944/
UTHealth, 2015. Chapter 3: Anatomy of the spinal cord. http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s2/chapter03.html
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