Raw facts and figures – on their own they have no
e.g. readings from sensors, survey facts
Data which has been processed by the computer. It has
a context which makes it meaningful
Is derived from information by applying rules to it.
Using information to make decisions
1,12, 1.4,2, 12, 1.2, 3,16, 1.1
Swim times for 100m
Swimmer No 2 is the fastest in the age group.
– Can hold one of two values – true/false, YES/NO 1/0
e.g are you disabled?
– Holds whole numbers only e.g. school years 7 8 9 10
– Holds decimal numbers e.g. for storing currency
– Holds any alphanumeric character, can include
numbers and symbols
e.g name address postcode tel no
• Save memory
• Faster to type in
• Less likely to have transcription errors
• Greater consistency of data
• Value judgments fitting into a certain category or
• Coarsen data by fitting itHow
am I ?
•Add value by aiding decision making Decision-making is based on information that is available at the time and if this is either out-of-date or incomplete then this can have a bad effect on the organisation or company. •Monitor progress. Information obtained by market research (e.g. people in the street stopping certain passers-by, questionnaires sent to a sample of homes) and sales figures can help to achieve this.
•Can target reasoning and strategy making e.g. buy more of a certain commodity because sales are good. Advertising and marketing a product should be aimed at people likely to buy it otherwise it is a waste of time and money.
•Gain advantage over competitors. Information can tell an organisation how well it is doing compared to its competitors. For example information can identify gaps in a particular market which can then, on the basis of sound information be filled.
Cost of information
Data collected directly
The organisation or company has to produce a way of
questionnaires, sampling etc. In the case of forms and
questionnaires, these will have to be printed, sent out
and collected. Not all people respond to forms or
questionnaires so many more will have to be sent out
in order to get a fair sample back. Often, an incentive
is given to encourage people to respond e.g. your
name being entered into a free prize draw if the form
is completed and returned.
Data collected indirectly
The organisation may have to buy the information or
pay a third party to gain access to data.
Data keying takes time and staff will have to be paid
to do it.
There are automated methods of data entry - optical
mark readers (OMR), optical character recognition
hardware/software needs to be purchased and staff
trained to use them.
Once the data has been inputted it needs to be
processed into information. This requires hardware
and software resources. The software may be ‘off the
shelf’ or it may have been developed specifically for
the organisation or company. Either way it will cost
There are costs involved in making sure that data
remains accurate and up-to-date. For example, an
organisation maintains a...
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