Case Study MS powerpoint

Topics: Multiple sclerosis, Nervous system, Neuron Pages: 38 (2477 words) Published: March 11, 2015
Multiple
Sclerosis

Presentation
Overview
History and Background of MS
Description of Nervous System
Courses of the disease
Detailed Information on central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Pathophysiology of the disease
Prognosis
Remission
Treatments and Medications Used
Interview With MS patient (Jason)
Bibliography

History
First case of Multiple Sclerosis was found in
England in 1848.
The case itself seems to have began in 1822.
The only documentation that allowed to
diagnose this patient was his personal
journal.
The mans name was Augustus D’Esté.
Born in 1794 and died in 1848

Background
Considered to be an autoimmune disorder, MS attacks the
myelin sheaths which surround and protect the nerve
fibers.
The affected myelin then forms scar tissue (hence the
name), also referred to as plaques or lesions, which can
damage the nerve fibers and disrupts the transmission of
nerve impulses from the CNS (brain and spinal cord) to the
body.
MS, literally translated to "many scars", is a chronic disease affecting the CNS.

Background
continued
Once pathways are interrupted,
impulses are shunted/short-circuited
and eventually, conduction can cease
(Hoehn and Marieb 405).
The interruption of pathways can
cause a variety and wide array of
symptoms, depending on the "course"
(stage) of the disease.

Courses
There are four courses of MS:
Relapsing-Remitting: 85% of those affected
with MS are initially diagnosed with this course.
Defined attacks of worsening neurological
function are followed by complete recovery
periods.
Primary-Progressive: Slowly worsening
symptoms with no periods of remission.

Courses
continued
Secondary-Progressive: Following an initial
relapse-remitting period, the disease
develops more steadily.
Progressive-Relapsing: Worsening symptoms
from the beginning with declining neurologic
function and no remissions.
Only 5% of those diagnosed experience
this course.

Nervous System Structure
Central Nervous System (CNS)Brain and
spinal cordPeripheral Nervous System
(PNS)Somatic Nervous System
(voluntary)Sensory and motorAutonomic
Nervous System
(involuntary)Sympathetic"Fight or
flight"/activated by
stressParasympathetickeeps body in
control when relaxed

Central Nervous System
(CNS)
Contains the brain as well as the spinal
cord, both are in the dorsal body cavity.
Interprets the sensory input and decides
the motor output. Consists of 31 pairs of
spinal nerves and 12 cranial nerves. The
spinal nerves carry information to and
from the spinal cord and cranial nerves
carry information to and from the brain.

Healthy Brain
MS Brain

MRI of a
normally
functioning

MRI of a
brain with
Multiple

Nervous System Function
Sensory input
Uses sensory receptors in the body to monitor changes
that occur both inside and outside the body. All of the
information that is gathered is referred to as sensory
input.
Integration
Sensory input is processed and interpreted then the
nervous system decides what should be done at each
moment.
Motor output
A response occurs by activating effector organs such as
muscles and glands(Marieb 2010).

Peripheral Nervous
System (PNS)
The sensory system contains nerve fibers
that carry information to the CNS from the
body (class notes). There are somatic nerves
which are associated with the skin, skeletal
muscles and joints. Visceral nerves are
those associated with the visceral organs.
The motor system transmits information
away from the CNS to the muscles and
glands

PNS Continued
Somatic (voluntary) nervous system
allows control over skeletal muscles and
sends signals to skeletal muscles from the
CNS (class notes).
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
monitors events that are involuntary.
Includes the sympathetic, which speeds
up the body, and the parasympathetic,
which slows the body down.

Structure of a
Neuron
Nissl bodies (Aggarwal, 2011)...

Bibliography: Nazario. WebMD, 18 Apr. 0003. Web. 20 July 2012.
Multiple Sclerosis: The Mechanisms Underlying the
Production of Symtoms and the Natural History of the Disease." The Royal Society 354.1390 (1999): 1649673. JSTOR
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