Brain Function

Topics: Nervous system, Neuron, Brain Pages: 3 (647 words) Published: October 18, 2014

ComponentDefinitionRole in Learning and Development
Neurons Cell in the brain or another part of the nervous system that transmits information to other cells (Ormrod, 2000, p, G7). Neo-neurons increase the ability to learn and memorize difficult cognitive tasks (Kurzweil, 2012). Neurotransmitters Chemical substance through which one neuron sends a message to another (Ormrod, 2000, p, G7). There are many different types of neurotransmitters and each have an impact on daily function (Cherry, nd). •Acetylcholine—linked to memory and learning. A lack of this neurotransmitter has been connected to Alzheimer. •Endorphins—linked to emotions and pain perception.

Dopamine—linked to thought and pleasurable feelings. I lack of dopamine is connected to Parkinson’s disease. However, schizophrenia in linked to excessive amounts of dopamine. Axon A long, armlike structure that transmits information on to still other neurons (Ormrod, 2000, p, 23). Transmits the neural signal away from the cell body. Damage to the axon can affect or limit how information is transmitted (Cherry, nd). Myelin sheathWhite fatty coating on the axon (Ormrod, 2000, p, 23). The white matter that comprises over half of the brain. The myelin sheath increases the speed and power of the nervous system function. Changes or alterations of these white matter has been linked to different psychiatric disorders (Fields, 2008). Dendrites Numerous branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons (Ormrod, 2000, p, 22). Transmits the neural signal towards the cell body. Damage to the dendrites can affect or limit how information is transmitted (Cherry, nd). Synapses Junction between two neurons that allows transmission of messages from one to the other (Ormrod, 2000, p, G11). Plays an important role in learning and memory by allow the new information to be absorbed and retained (Want To Improve Memory, 2007). Cortex Upper part of the brain; site of complex, conscious thinking...
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