The Brain and Reflex Behaviors
The growth of the brain is a lifelong process fundamental to physical, cognitive, and emotional development. Building of the brain
The functions of the brain and the reflexes derive from the central nervous system. The central nervous system is located in the brain and the spinal cord, which is a bundle of nerves running through the backbone. The nervous cord in spine then branches out into a peripheral network of nerves extending to every part of the body. The brain then sends nerve signals or commands to specific parts of the body. The brain at birth is only about one-fourth to one third of its eventual adult size. The brain growth occurs in different stimulated moment called brain growth spurts. At three weeks after conception the brain gradually develops from a long hollow tube into a spherical mass. The brain stem which is responsible for basic functions like breathing, bodily temperature, heart rate, sleep-wake cycle, has nearly finished growing. The Cerebellum which is the part that maintains balance and motor coordination grows fastest on during the first year of life. The cerebrum which is the largest part of the brain is separated into right and left hemispheres. Each hemisphere specializes in something. This specialization in hemispheres is called lateralization. The left hemisphere is mainly responsible for language and logical thinking. The right side is concerned with visually and spatial functions, like drawing or map reading. These two hemispheres are joined by a thick layer call the corpus callosum, allowing them to share information and coordinated commands. The brain is finally adult size at age 10. Each cerebral hemisphere has four lobes or sections, frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes, which control different functions that develop at different rates. The cerebral cortex which is the outer surface of the cerebrum oversees the functions of vision, hearing, and other sensory...
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