Biological Basis Of Behavior

Topics: Nervous system, Neuron, Brain Pages: 3 (684 words) Published: March 22, 2015
Biological Basis of Behavior
William James- mental activity is also physiological activity Neuron- basic unit of the nervous system
*Each neuron is a living cell with a nucleus and other parts common to all cells. Three main parts of the neuron:

1. Dendrites: the receiving part of the nucleus
2. Cell body (Soma): The processing part Electrochemical Transmission 3. Axon: the transmitting part
Normal habit change: Doing the same behavior over and over again (same neurons being used over and over) Nerve: a bundle of neurons that have a specific purpose
Transmission of the neural impulse is electrochemical
Nerve impulses normally travel in one direction- from dendrites, through the cell body, along the axon. At the end of the axon a chemical transmitter substance is released and crosses the synapse or synaptic gap. Synapse: A slight physical separation across which the transmitter substance flows. Human Brain- Composed of three concentric layers, all three layers are interconnected. 1. Brain Stem: Controls the life maintaining the processes- breathing, metabolism, maintaining homeostasis (normal body temperature, normal heart rate, and blood pressure). **inner layer** Reticular activating system (RAS): a collection of neurons which controls the state of arousal (Changes you from being in a sleeping state to being awake) of the organism, also controls muscle tone and sensory awareness. 2. Midbrain-* limbic system*: emotional (center or the brain). Controls for thirst, hunger, as well as aggression and violence. Pleasure center also located in this area.

3. Cerebral Cortex- Outermost layer of the brain. Responsible for the higher mental processes- Thinking, memory, language, music, and art. Two hemispheres: for the most part activities on the left side of the body come under the control of the right hemisphere. Activities on the right side of the body come under the control of the left hemisphere. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes:

*Frontal...
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