a&P final exam study questions

Topics: Nervous system, Action potential, Brain Pages: 6 (1931 words) Published: September 23, 2014

1.
A. Homeostasis is defined as a condition of equilibrium in the body internal environment. For example the internal organs, behaviors, body temperatures. In homeostasis it can be considered as dynamic as it is always changing. The liver, kidneys, autonomic nervous system and endocrine system, and hypothalamus help maintain homeostasis. For example, my brother has imbalance homeostasis due to having seizures. Because his brain is not functioning correctly, his homeostasis is not balance. B. Medial means closer to the midline of the body. For example, my heart is medial to my lungs. Lateral means it is outside or away from the center of the body. For example, my pinky toe is lateral to my big toe. Supine means lying face up or above. Prone means face down which is the opposite of supine. Proximal is next to or nearest the point of attachment. Distal is away from the point of attachment. For example my elbow is distal to my shoulder but proximal to my wrist.

2.
A. The four types of organics are lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. This is because lipids help the body function by storing energy and nutrients, structural components of the cell membrane. Proteins help structure and function throughout the body, and the nucleic acids is the gene that carries genetic information and forms structure within the cells. B. Dehydration synthesis and Hydrolysis are the opposite of each other. Dehydration synthesis produces water and hydrolysis requires water which means it is the breakdown of a molecule to split the reactant into two or more products.

3.
A. The difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport is facilitated diffusion goes from a high concentration to a low concentration and it does not require ATP. Active transport goes from a low concentration to a high concentration and requires ATP. In active transport the molecules are carried against the force of diffusion however in facilitated diffusion that energy is not needed. B. The Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum are alike because they both handle protein. Endoplasmic reticulum makes the protein which then sends to the Golgi complex. The Golgi complex is the package and delivery which means it distributes the protein.

4.
A. The purpose of an epithelium is to protect the underlying tissue in the human body, such as the muscle and skin. It also transport and detection of secretion. It is formed into layers which lie on top of connective tissue. B. Connective tissue is located in the dermis of the skin. It has a supply of oxygen and nutrients. When you are hurt, connective tissue can reproduce the skin quickly and easily, and the connective tissue has a lot of space between the cells called extracellular matrix.

5.
A. The merocrine sweat gland cells secrete without loose of cytoplasm. The duration and the rate of secretion are determined by their regulation of how you sweat. Holocrine gland discharges secretion contains the entire secreting cell. The cell transforms into secrete. This is located in the sebaceous gland. B. A severely burned patient has lost the function of the skin. What are the greatest dangers to the patient? The greatest danger this patient would have would be third degree burns because the skin would have damaged into the dermis with no function of the skin at all. The connective tissue would not to reproduce new skin.

6.
A. Within the bone cell, it starts with the osteons which is the primary structure of the long bone that provides strength. The osteoclast is responsible for bone resorption and breaks down the bone, while the osteoblast are the builders of the bone and makes a new bone or remodel an old bone. B. A bone as a living, dynamic tissue includes calcium, water, and collagen. The collagen and minerals provides the strength of a bone.

7.
A. An average vertebrae consist of the cervical which consist of 7 vertebrates, thoracic, which consist of 12 vertebrates, lumbar, which...
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