Test #1 review
CHY4U: introduction and the Renaissance test review
Charlemagne – was the king that tried to resurrect the Roman Empire. The pope crowned Charlemagne king. He wanted his capital to be like Rome. He encouraged Latin learning throughout the empire to make it more consistent. He set up schools even thought he himself could not write. He helped the church spread Christianity. He blended Germanic, Roman, and Christian ideas. Johannes Gutenberg – invented the printing press in 1440 which allowed for mass production and distribution of books. Science, arts and religions became more readily available due to this invention. 1) Birth of mass media- books, newspapers, and information became available to the masses. 2) Literacy increases. Use of European vernacular languages like Spanish, German, French, Italian, and English increased. 3) Ideas, knowledge and news spread more quickly. 4) Religion is now in the hands of the common people. The bible is printed more than any other book. Desiderius Erasmus – author of the praise of folly (1509) - used satire to expose follies in church and as a critic of scandalous renaissance Popes. He argues that rulers should behave in conformity with Christian ideals. Michelangelo – spent his life in Florence and Rome, was another many sided renaissance genius, talented as a sculpture, painter, poet and architect. He created the “David” from 1501-1504; it is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and Michelangelo’s greatest work of art. The 17 foot marble portrays biblical king David with his fight with Goliath. He also created the Pieta (1498-1499) which is a marble sculpture in st. Pete’s Basilica in Vatican City. It depicts the body of Jesus on his mother Mary after the crucifixion. He also sculpted the Moses (with horns) and created the ceiling of the Sistine chapel- most remounted work of the renaissance. William Shakespeare- Shakespeare plays, hamlet, Macbeth, and Romeo and Juliet are noted for exploring the full range of human emotion. He and many of his plays represent the humanist’s values for individuality. ** (not on sheet) Fillippo Brunelleschi- artist that created the duomo – duo dome- and the single point perspective ** (not on sheet) Donatello – artist that created the bronze Davis and the “leaning” slanted (showed curve and natural human form) figures Boccaccio – was an author whose writings poke fun at the church. He was a secular humanist. Machiavelli – political philosopher who wrote “the prince” a handbook for kings which gives advice on increasing and holding power. Had humanist education. He was secretary of government agency on warfare and foreign affairs. He was also an assistant to the head of Florentine representative – Piero Soderini. He wrote two books “the prince”- on principles “discourse”- republic Thomas More- wrote a book called utopia. He spoke against unjust laws and harsh punishments. Argued that private property was a source of greed and that everything should be shared. Leonardo Da Vinci – he was considered the ideal Renaissance man. His genius can be seen in his skills as a painter, sculpture, architect, musician, engineer and scientist. Dante Alighieri- he opened the door to renaissance literature. He wrote in Italian not Latin. He wrote the “Divine Comedy” which is written in three parts: inferno, Purgatory and paradise. He re-introduces to the Italians the Greek, and roman Heroes.
Lorenzo Medici – was the unoffical ruler of Florence from 1469 till his death, he was a humanist, arts patron- and a skillful politician. Alexsandre VI and the Borgia’s- most corrupt and controversial Popes of the Renaissance. New monarchs:
Isabella 1 of Castile – married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469. Uniting Spain. Completed the reconquista, driving the moors and Jews out of Spain. Louis XI of France from Valois family- increased the size of the kingdom. He weakened the nobility and he created the largest army in Europe. Henry VII of...
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