THE BIOLOGY OF MIND
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BIOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, AND MIND
2-1: Why are psychologists concerned with human biology?
By studying the links the behavior and biology, psychologist work from a biological perspective. This perspective shows the psychologist which areas of systems interact to influence behavior. Humans are biopsychosocial systems, in which biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors interact to influence our behavior.
2-2: What are neurons, and how do they transmit information? Neurons are the basic components of the nervous system. The body uses these neurons in its electrochemical information system rather quickly. A neuron receives signals through its dendrites that are branched out, and sends those signals through its axons. Axons that transmit faster are encased in a myelin sheath. If the combined received signals exceed a minimum threshold, the neuron fires, and transmits an electrical impulse down its axon by means of chemistry to electricity process. The neuron’s reaction is an all or non process.
2-3: How do nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells?
The electrical impulse (the axon potential) reaches the end of an axon (the axon terminals), they stimulate the release of neurotransmitters. These are chemical messengers that carry a message from the sending neuron across a synapse to receptor sites on a receiving neuron. The sending neuron, in a process called reuptake, then normally reavsorbs the excess neurotransmitter molecules in the synaptic gap. If incoming signals are strong enough, the receiving neuron generates its own action potential and relays the message to other cells.
2-4: How do neurotransmitters influence behavior, and how do drugs and other chemicals affect neurotransmission? Neurotransmitters travel designated pathways in the brain and may influene specific behaviors and emotions. Acetylcholine...
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