Snell Anatomy Chapter 1

Topics: Lymphatic system, Muscle, Knee Pages: 20 (5131 words) Published: July 6, 2013
CLINICAL ANATOMY
Chapter 1 Summary

Anatomy – science of structure and function of the body
Clinical Anatomy – study of the macroscopic structures of the body as it relates to the practice of medicine and application to other health sciences Basic Anatomy – minimal study to understand the overall structure and function of the body

Painting: The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp is a 1632 oil painting by Rembrandt housed in the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague, Netherlands

History:
Hippocrates – father of western medicine
Galen – pig/monkey anatomy same to humans, was debunked in 1543 by Vesalius Vesalius – published drawings of human dissection

Technology:
MRI – align the hydrogen atoms of the body to scan
CT Scan – body in different slices or cross sections, preferred in studying bony lesions Prosection: cadaver pre-dissected by professors for display for students to study

Mnemonics:
Bones of the Wrist – some lovers try positions they cannot handle Branches of the brachial plexus – my aunt raped my uncle

Terms related to position

Median Sagittal Plane – divides the body into equal left and right Paramedian – beside and parallel to median saggital plane
Medial – structure nearer the median plane
Lateral – further from the median plane

Coronal Planes – divides the body to front and back or anterior/posterior, line is perpendicular to median saggital plane Exceptions:
Hands – palmar or dorsal (back of the hand)
Feet – plantar or dorsal

Horizontal or Transverse Planes – divides the body into upper and lower half

Proximal – nearer the root of limb
Distal – relative distance is farther from the roots of the limbs

Superficial or Deep – denote the relative distance of structures from the surface

Superior (craniad) or Inferior (caudad) – denote levels relatively high or low

Internal or External – relative distance of a structure from the center of the organ or cavity

Ipsilateral – of the same side
Contralateral – of the opposite side

Terms related to Movement

Flexion – movement that takes place in the saggital plane and usually approximates anterior surfaces

Extension – straightening of the joint and usually takes place posteriorly

Lateral Flexion – movement of the trunk in the coronal plane Dorsiflexion – flexion of foot upward
Plantar flexion – flexion of foot downward

Abduction –movement of limb away from the midline in the coronal plane Adduction – movement toward the midline in the coronal plane

Rotation – movement of body around its long axis
Medial Rotation – movement that results in anterior surfaces facing medially Lateral Rotation – movement that results in anterior surfaces facing laterally

Pronation of Forearm – medial rotation so that the palm faces posteriorly Supination – medial rotation so the palm faces anteriorly

Protraction – move forward
Retraction – move backward (to describe movement of the jaw at the tempomandibular joints)

Inversion – movement of foot so the sole faces medially
Eversion – sole of feet faces laterally

SKIN
1.8sq.m., 11 kg
Purpose: thermorequlation, mechanical barrier to infection, sensation, waste and excessive salt secretion, vitamin D synthesis (b/w 10a-3p) Skin = Cutaneous (Latin – Cutis), Dermis- greek
Epidermis –Superficial; composed of stratified epithelium that rise to the surface as they mature; on palms and soles, tend to be thicker, thinner on anterior arm/forearm Dermis – Deep part, made of dense connective tissue, contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves; tends to be thinner on anterior parts and thicker on posterior areas; connected to the deep fascia or bones by the subQ tissue/superficial fascia

Skin Creases or “Langer lines”– skin over joints that always fold at the same place; skin is thinner and firmly tethered to underlying structures by strong bands of fibrous tissue, corresponds to where movements are anchored. Skin contractures occur when creases are violated...
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