Introduction to Pharmacology
Chapter 1 – Pharmacology intro
Pharmacology is the study of drugs. A drug can be any substance that, when administered to living organisms, produces a change in function. Thus, substances such as water, metals (iron), or insecticides can be classified as drugs. However, the term drug commonly means any medication that is used for diagnosing, curing, or treating disease Every drug produces its intended effect, or therapeutic effect, along with other effects. The therapeutic use(s) of any drug is referred to as the drug indication, meaning indications for use. The term contraindication refers to the situation or circumstance when a particular drug should not be used. side effects are more of a nuisance than they are harmful
Adverse effects are also undesired effects, but these are effects that may be harmful Toxic effects, or toxicity, implies drug poisoning, the consequences of which can be extremely harmful and may be life-threatening. The site of action of a drug is the location within the body where the drug exerts its therapeutic effect Mechanism of action explains how a drug produces its effects. Drugs that bind to specific receptors and produce a drug action are called agonists. Morphine is an example of an agonist. Drugs that bind to specific receptors and inhibit agonist drug action or cellular functions are called antagonists. Potency is a measure of the strength, or concentration, of a drug required to produce a specific effect therapeutic index (TI) is a ratio of the LD50 to the ED50 of a drug Chapter 2 – Pharmacokinetics and factors of individual variation bioavailability: percentage of the drug dosage that is absorbed. drug absorption: entrance of a drug into the bloodstream from its site of administration. drug distribution: passage of a drug from the blood to the tissues and organs of the body. drug excretion: elimination of the drug from the body.
drug metabolism: the enzymatic biotransformation of a drug into metabolites. drug microsomal metabolizing system (DMMS): group of enzymes located primarily in the liver that function to metabolize (biotransformation) drugs. enzyme induction: increase in the amount of drug-metabolizing enzymes after repeated administration of certain drugs. half-life: time required for the body to reduce the amount of drug in the plasma by one-half. loading dose: initial drug dose administered to rapidly achieve therapeutic drug concentrations. maintenance dose: dose administered to maintain drug blood levels in the therapeutic range. pharmacokinetics: describes the processes of drug absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism, and drug excretion. Chapter 3 – Geriatric Pharmacology
Each of the pharmacokinetic processes—drug absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism, and drug excretion—is affected to some degree by the aging process. With age there is a decrease in blood flow to the intestinal tract, reduced intestinal absorptive surface area, a decrease in gastric acid secretion, and a decrease in intestinal motility. The percentage of lean body mass (muscle) and the percentage of total body water decrease The percentage of body fat (adipose tissue) increases with age the rate of drug metabolism decreases with age, although there is much variability. The age-related decreases in liver blood flow and production of some drug microsomal metabolizing enzymes (DMMS) reduce the rate of drug metabolism The elderly are often more sensitive to drugs that depress the central nervous system. Sedatives, hypnotics, antianxiety agents, antipsychotics, and antidepressant drugs 3940often cause excessive pharmacological and adverse effects in the elderly Pharmacology for the Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The somatic nervous system is concerned with sensation and voluntary movement. The autonomic nervous system controls blood pressure, heart...
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