Lecture Notes

Topics: Neuron, Brain, Nervous system Pages: 76 (19041 words) Published: March 25, 2014

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8 Chapters + Prologue (12-15 PGS)
CHAPTER 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science
CHAPTER 2: The Biology Of Mind (“Everything Psychological is Biological”) CHAPTER 6: Sensation & Perception
CHAPTER 3: Consciousness & the 2 Track Mind
CHAPTER 7: Learning
CHAPTER 11: Motivation and Work
CHAPTER 12: Emotions
CHAPTER 8: Memory

Books: “Psychology” by Myers (10TH edition)

Evaluation and Exam Dates (4 components)
2 Midterms
October 1 – chapters 1-2 &6, multiple choice and true or false – 25.5% of final mark November 13 – chapters 3 & 6, 7, multiple choice and true or false – 25.% of final mark 1 Final
unknown – cumulative (all chapters + prologue equally weighted) – 45% of final mark 1 ISPR
deadline = December 3 – participation in psychology research - 4% of final mark!

ALERT
Absence from exams MUST be properly documented.
Student card is mandatory!
Must arrive on time! Otherwise, penalties will apply.

What is Psychology?
A science which studies cognitive, emotional and motivational processes and behaviors.

What is the scope of psychology?
Psychology is used for numerous purposes, not only psychological therapy.

Why do we need psychological science?

Limits of Intuition
While intuition can be important and accurate, we cannot rely on it as it can also be wrong, misleading and lead us astray. Limits of Common Sense
We cannot rely on common sense as it does not generate new knowledge; it comes after an experience – not before! Common sense itself is the result of experience, learning and having acquired knowledge. Hindsight bias – “I knew it all along” phenomenon – we have a tendency to overestimate and over-exaggerate our abilities (“I told you so!”). Overconfidence

We tend to overestimate how accurate our knowledge is.
Tetlock: Psychologist who studies the accuracy of experts’ statements (were they right or wrong?). Illusory Correlation
Our tendency to see a relationship between 2 variables or more where NO relationship exists! Cognitive effects – we give anything that supports our beliefs more attention and deny or ignore whatever may go against it. We remember whatever supports our beliefs and forget whatever doesn’t. Perceiving Order in Random Events

As human beings, we are uncomfortable with uncertainty. We tend to look for explanations.

The Scientific Attitude

Curiosity and passion
One needs to be perseverant in pursuing their interests and satisfying their curiosity. Open mindedness
A trait that needs to be cultivated!
One cannot be rigid – they must be open to new experiences and ideas, particularly if they are fundamentally different that personal ideas. We need to be able to look at situations from different perspectives. Skepticism

One cannot be naïve and believe everything they’re told.
Evidence must be found and examined for oneself.
It is crucial for one to find the perfect balance between open mindedness and skepticism – being too open minded makes one naïve whilst being too skeptical makes one rigid! Awareness of…
We must strive to limit our biases from interfering with our objectivity. Humility
No matter how smart we may be, we must understand that others are smart too and may also have significant contributions to make. No matter how smart we are, we must understand that we are only human and will fail and make mistakes. We must remove the ego in order to further our studies – we are not researching for recognition or prestige, but for furthering our personal and others’ understanding. Cautiousness

We never prove anything in science!
NEVER use the word proof. Data can either support or confirm research.

The Scientific Method
Any field of study that follows the scientific method is a science!

Observation
Everything in science starts with an observation!
Observations may first be casual, but then must become...
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