HUMAN AS A COMPLEX ORGANISM
The human body is a complex system of cells, most of which are grouped into organ systems that have specialized functions. These systems can best be understood in terms of the essential functions they serve: deriving energy from food, protection against injury, internal coordination, and reproduction. The continual need for energy engages the senses and skeletal muscles in obtaining food, the digestive system in breaking food down into usable compounds and in disposing of undigested food materials, the lungs in providing oxygen for combustion of food and discharging the carbon dioxide produced, the urinary system for disposing of other dissolved waste products of cell activity, the skin and lungs for getting rid of excess heat (into which most of the energy in food eventually degrades), and the circulatory system for moving all these substances to or from cells where they are needed or produced. Like all organisms, humans have the means of protecting themselves. Self-protection involves using the senses in detecting danger, the hormone system in stimulating the heart and gaining access to emergency energy supplies, and the muscles in escape or defense. The skin provides a shield against harmful substances and organisms, such as bacteria and parasites. The immune system provides protection against the substances that do gain entrance into the body and against cancerous cells that develop spontaneously in the body. The nervous system plays an especially important role in survival; it makes possible the kind of learning humans need to cope with changes in their environment. The internal control required for managing and coordinating these complex systems is carried out by the brain and nervous system in conjunction with the hormone-excreting glands. The electrical and chemical signals carried by nerves and hormones integrate the body as a whole. The many cross-influences between the hormones and nerves give rise to a system of...
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