Fundamentals of Corporate Finance

Topics: Monoamine oxidase, Nervous system, Neurotransmitter Pages: 1 (267 words) Published: July 29, 2014
The Mode of Psychoactive effect of ginseng versus chocolate
Ginsenosides are steroid glycosides that are related to the positive health benefits attributed to ginseng (Marcone 2014). These glycosides are made up of two parts; Rg1 and Rg2, which allow neurotransmitters to be more effective (Marcone 2014). Ginsenosides moderate the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO), which increases protein synthesis (Marcone 2014). An increase in protein synthesis allows for a better immune system, and an increased or moderated amount of neurotransmitters which can alleviate depression and anxiety (Marcone 2014). In summation, ginseng can act as a stimulant in people (WebMD 2013). Chocolate has a very different psychoactive mechanism than that of ginseng. Chocolate contains anandamine which is very similar to a cannabinoid receptor and causes more of a euphoria feel than the awareness that ginseng brings (Parker et al. 2006, Nechepurenko E.K. et al 2010). Theobromine and caffeine are present in chocolate which are both stimulants which affect the central nervous system and adrenal glands (Marcone 2014, Mumford et al. 1994). These psychoactive effects cause very different nutritional and/or health benefits in the two products. References

Marcone, M.F. The psychpharmacology of legal psychoactive foods. Nelson Education: Canada. Pages 102-123 (2014). Mumford, K. G; Evans, M. S; Kaminski, J. B; Preston, L. K; Sannerud, A. C; Silverman, Kenneth; Griffiths, Roland R. 1994. Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of theobromine and caffeine in humans. Psychopharmacology, 115(1-2), 1-8. Nechepurenko, E.K., Fomenko, O.N. and Vlasova, I.A. Chocolate is a psychoactive food. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.rusnauka.com/1_KAND_2010/Chimia/6_57880.doc.htm. Parker, G., Parker, I., and Brotchie, H. Mood state effects of chocolate: review. Journal of Affective Disorders 92: 149-159 (200

References: Marcone, M.F. The psychpharmacology of legal psychoactive foods. Nelson Education: Canada. Pages 102-123 (2014).
Mumford, K. G; Evans, M. S; Kaminski, J. B; Preston, L. K; Sannerud, A. C; Silverman, Kenneth; Griffiths, Roland R. 1994. Discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of theobromine and caffeine in humans. Psychopharmacology, 115(1-2), 1-8.
Nechepurenko, E.K., Fomenko, O.N. and Vlasova, I.A. Chocolate is a psychoactive food. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.rusnauka.com/1_KAND_2010/Chimia/6_57880.doc.htm.
Parker, G., Parker, I., and Brotchie, H. Mood state effects of chocolate: review. Journal of Affective Disorders 92: 149-159 (200
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