Psych 100 Final Exam Review
1. Perspectives in psychology:
i. Neuroscience: biological foundation of behavior.
ii. Cognitive: Higher mental processes.
iii. Developmental: change over time.
iv. Personality: individual differences.
v. Health: how psychological factors affect health.
vi. Clinical: psychological disorders and treatment.
vii. Industrial-organizational: human resources and workplace assessment. viii. Social: effects of groups on behavior.
ix. Experimental: learning.
x. Psychodynamic: emphasizes the inner, unconscious forces within the individual. xi. Humanistic: regards humans as having unique qualities that makes us different from animals. 2. Landmarks in psychology:
i. 4 Temperaments (1879):
a. Choleric: angry.
b. Sanguine: cheerful.
c. Melancholic: sad.
d. Phlegmatic: calm.
ii. Blank Slate: something that has yet to be marked.
iii. Introspection: record your thought, map out the thought process; structuralism: understanding the structure of the mind. iv. Stream of consciousness: activities of the mind (functionalism) v. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: our perception is guided by more than the individual components of each. 3. A theory is a well-established principle that has been developed to explain some aspect of the natural world. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. 4. Types of research designs:
i. Archival: use existing information from an appropriate data source. ii. Naturalistic Observation: observe naturally occurring behavior in a specific set of situations iii. Survey research: Choose a sample to represent a larger population and ask them a series of questions. iv. Case study: intensively investigate an individual or small group. v. Experimental: expose participants to different conditions and compare their responses. 5. Experimental group: is a group that receives treatment. Control group: group that receives no treatment or group that receives different treatment. 6. Ethical guidelines for research:
i. The participants right to privacy.
ii. Voluntary participation.
iii. Informed Consent.
7. Parts of the neuron:
i. Dendrites: receives input from other neurons.
ii. Nucleus: contains the cell’s genes.
iii. Cell body: contains structure essential to life of the cell. iv. Axon: transmits information within the neuron.
v. Myelin Sheath: protective coating that speeds transmission. vi. Terminal button: sends messages to other neurons.
8. Divisions of the nervous system:
i. Central Nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
ii. Peripheral nervous system:
a. Autonomic nervous system: communicates with internal organs and glands. It has sympathetic division (arousing) and parasympathetic division (calming). b. Somatic nervous system: communicates with sense of organs and voluntary muscles. It has sensory nervous system (sensory input) and motor nervous system (motor output) 9. Major parts of the brain:
i. Hypothalamus: regulates body’s internal environment.
ii. Medulla: controls breathing and heart rate.
iii. Cerebellum: balance and maintain posture.
iv. Pons: arousal.
v. Thalamus: relay station for senses.
vi. Amygdala: related to emotions.
vii. Hippocampus: memory.
10. Areas within the cortex:
i. Occipital lobe (rear): vision.
ii. Temporal lobe (side): hearing and speech comprehension. (Wernicke’s) iii. Parietal lobe (top): sensations and spatial ability.
iv. Frontal lobe (front): motor control and speech production. (Broca’s) 11. Functions of neurotransmitters:
i. Acetylcholine: muscle movement and memory.
ii. Glutamate: memory.
iii. Gamma-amino butyric acid: eating, aggression, and sleeping. iv. Dopamine: motor control, attention, and pleasure.
v. Serotonin: sleep, eating, mood, pain.
vi. Endorphins: pain suppression pleasurable feelings.
12. Cons are responsible for color vision. Rods are responsible for night...
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