Developmental Psychology Notes- Chapter 5: Early Childhood: Body and Mind Healthy 6 year old: weighs between 40-50 lbs, least 3.5 ft tall, looks lean not cubby, has adult like body proportions (legs constitute half of total height) Height of Children T-S: African, European, Asian and Latino descent Obesity major problem, children from low income families especially vulnerable to obesity bc their cultures quard against undernutrition/parents rely on cheap fast food (low nutritional value/high calorie value). Body weight increases as income falls. Need to exercise regularly and eat five to nine servings of fruit/vegetables. Children’s diets deficient: iron, zinc, calcium
Recommended amount of juice 6 ounces, 24 ounces of milk daily and no cola/sugary drinks Holidays to be wary of: Halloween, Christmas, Easter rewarding children with candy Tooth decay most common disease of young children
“Just-right Characteristic” seen in 75% of 3 year olds
* Preferred to have things done in a particular order/certain way * Strong preference to wear/not wear certain clothes
* Prepared for bedtime by engaging in certain activity/routine * Strong preferences for certain foods
*Many young children have strong preferences to what/how they eat, and many parents overfeed their children. Together these factors lead to nutritional problems. Develop gross motor skills spontaneously/diligently through play. Fine motor skills are (especially with hands/fingers) harder to master. Environmental Hazards:
Pollution: Toxins in the air/water/food supply can interfere with the development of motor skills. This is mostly a concern with urban children. Lead: Found as a pigment in paint/anti-knock additive in gasoline. Exposure leads to reduction of intelligence/increase behavior problems in young children. US laws banned the use of lead in paint and gasoline. Very high levels can cause mental retardation/death.
By age 2, child’s brain...
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