Central Nervous System Stimulants

Topics: Caffeine, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine Pages: 4 (517 words) Published: July 28, 2013
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS

Definition
Stimulants are a substance which tends to increase behavioral activity when administered. Primary action of a diverse group of pharmacologic agents – adverse effect associated with many drugs.

Signs and symptoms
* Elevate Mood
* Increase Motor Activity
* Increase Alertness
* Decrease need for Sleep

*In case of overdose lead to convulsion and death.

Mode of Action
* Block neurotransmitters reuptake: Cocaine
* Promote neurotransmitters release : Amphetamine
* Block Metabolism - MAO inhibitors (monoamine oxidase):ex. Phenelzine * Antagonize the effect of inhibitory neurotransmitter: Picrotoxin & Strychnine

Classification of CNS Stimulants
* Analeptic Stimulants
* Respiratory Stimulants
* Convulsants
* Methylxanthines
* Psychomotor Stimulants
* Sympathomimetics or Andrenergic CNS Stimulants

Analeptic Stimulants
* To diverse chemical class of agents
* Majority can be absorbed orally
* Have a short duration of action
* Pharmacological effect is terminated through hepatic metabolism * Ability to alter movement of chloride ions across neuronal membranes. (Possible common mechanism of action)

Pentylenetetrazole
Used clinically as a tool for screening latent epileptics and experimentally to screen compounds for anti-epileptic activity.

Picrotoxin
Used to study CNS mechanisms; it interferes with pathways that are strychnine resistant.

Strychnine
Is a source of accidental poisoning. Also used to study CNS mechanism, because of its relatively specific action as a glycine antagonist

Treatment for Strychnine Poisoning
* Remove or reduce external sensory stimuli
* Diazepam or Clonazepam IV or Nitrous Oxide by inhalation to depress CNS and stop convulsions which can be fatal. Methylxanthines
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