Period 6 Biology HP
17 March 2014
Biology Study Guide: Unit 6 Physiology III Benchmark
1. Homeostasis maintains and keeps a balance of an organism’s internal environment. 2. The body maintains homeostasis by the feedback inhibition, in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus. 3. The axon terminal is the nerve ending. The nodes speed up the message. The myelin sheath is an insulating membrane. The axon carries impulses away from the cell body. The cell body is the largest part of a typical neuron. The dendrites carry impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body. The nucleus is the control center of the cell.
4. A synapse is location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell. 5. A neurotransmitter is a chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell. 6. When an impulse arrives at an axon terminal, the vesicles release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and attach themselves to receptors on the membrane of the neighboring cell. This stimulus causes positive sodium ions to rush across the cell membrane, stimulating the second cell. If the stimulation exceeds the cell’s threshold, a new impulse begins. 7. The autonomic nervous system regulates activities that are involuntary. 8. I don’t know. I’m really tired. Maybe.
9. The hypothalamus is the brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature. The pons is the region in the brain stem that regulates flow of information between the brain and the rest of the body. The cerebellum is the region of the brain that coordinates body movements. The cerebrum is the area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body. 10. The skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, bladder, and large intestines are in charge of waste...
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