The Biology of Mind
Neuron is a nerve cell, basic building block our nerve system
Neurons consists in:
Dendrites : neurons bushy branches and it listens
Axons: Tube that passes the messages and it speaks – transmit
Action potential : is a neural impulse, brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
Threshold: is the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Myelin Sheath covers an axon and some neurons
Synapse : is the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
Excitatory signal is pushing a neuron accelerator
Inhibitory signal is like pushing a brake
All-in-one-response is a neuron response to stimulation , meaning that the intensity of the stimulus determines whether is excitatory or Inhibitory .
Neurotransmitters: is a chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
How do Neurotransmitters influences behavior?
Influences on hunger and thinking, depression and euphoria, addiction and therapy .
Neurotransmitters pathways : each of the brain’s differing chemicals messengers has designated pathways where its operates.
Seratonin Pathway : affects mood, hunger , sleep, and arouse Ex malfunction: undersupply is linking to depression , Prozac and some others anti depression drugs raises serotonin level
Dopamine Pathway: Influences movements, learning attention and emotion. Ex malfunction: excessive Dopamine is linked to schizophrenia and absence of dopamine the brain produces tremors and decrease mobility of Parkinson’s disease.
Acetylcholine : enables muscle action, learning and memory. Ex malfunction: with Parkinson ‘s disease , Ach- producing , neurons deteriorate.
Norepinephrine : Helps control alertness and arouse . Ex malfunction: under supply can depress mood.
Endorphins: Lessen pain and boost mood. Ex malfunction: If fooled w/ artificial opiates , the brain may stop producing endorphins , causing an intense discomfort.
The nervous system
Nervous system : the body speedy , electrochemical communication network , consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Peripheral nervous systems ( PNC) the sensory and motor neurons that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body
Central nervous systems.(CNS) the brain and the spinal cord
Nerves bundle axons that form natural “cables “ connection the central nervous system with muscles , glands , and sense organs.
Sensory neurons carries incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Motor neurons carries outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Interneurons are neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicates internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs .
Somatic nervous system is the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body ‘s skeletal muscles. It is also called the skeletal nervous system
Autonomic nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system that controls our glands and our muscles of our internal organs influences functions as glandular activity , heart beat , and digestion.
The autonomic nervous system is subdivided in 2 system:
Sympathetic nervous system arouses and expends energy .if something alarms , enrages or challenges you , you SNS will accelerate your heartbeat, raise your blood pressure , slow your digestion, raise your blood sugar, cool you with perspiration, making you alert and ready for action
Parasympathetic nervous system produces the opposite effects. It conserves energy and calms you b decreasing your heart beat , lowering your blood sugar,
The Central Nervous System
Neural networks is the brains neurons cluster into a work groups.
Reflex a simple . automatic response to...
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