B1a Fitness and health
1. You should be thinking about the differences between health and fitness, concentrating on the causes and prevention of heart disease, which is the most common cause of death in the UK. 2. Have ideas on encouraging a healthy lifestyle e.g. ways to reduce the risk of heart disease and high blood pressure e.g. give up smoking, avoid eating high levels of salt and avoid eating high levels of saturated fat. 3. Know that the risk of developing heart disease can be increased by a number of factors, to include: high blood pressure
eating high levels of salt
Eating high levels of saturated fat.
4. Be able to describe how cholesterol can restrict or block blood flow in arteries by forming plaques. 5. Be able to analyse data that show the changing incidence of heart disease in the UK. 6. Know that blood pressure measurements consist of diastolic and systolic data in mmHg. Be able to explain why blood in arteries is under pressure - due to contraction of heart muscles so that blood reaches all parts of the body i.e. the heart acts as a pump. 7. HT only: Be able to explain the possible consequences of having high blood pressure. 8. Be able to describe the factors that increase blood pressure: being overweight
high alcohol intake
9. HT only: Be able to explain the possible consequences of having low blood pressure. 10. Be able to describe the factors that decrease blood pressure: regular exercise
11. Be able to explain the difference between fitness (the ability to do physical activity) and health (free from disease). 12. Analyse the results of different ways of measuring fitness (strength, stamina, flexibility, agility, speed and cardiovascular efficiency). HT only: Be able to evaluate different ways of measuring fitness. 13. Be able to explain how smoking increases blood pressure: carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood so heart rate increases to compensate, Nicotine increases heart rate.
HT only: Explain why carbon monoxide reduces the carrying capacity of red blood cells, using the idea that it combines with the haemoglobin preventing the oxygen transport. HT only: Explain how narrowed coronary arteries, together with a thrombosis, increase the risk of a heart attack 14. Be able to explain how narrowed coronary arteries, together with a thrombosis, increase the risk of a heart attack. 15. Be able to explain how diet can increase the risk of heart disease to include: saturated fats leading to a build-up of cholesterol (a plaque) in arteries Be able to describe how cholesterol can restrict or block blood flow in arteries by forming plaques. be able to suggest ideas on how to lower cholesterol intake
High levels of salt elevating blood pressure.
16. Be able to interpret data showing possible links between the amount of saturated fat eaten, the build-up of cholesterol plaques and the incidence of heart disease.
B1b Human health and diet
1. Appreciate the fact that the populations of many countries are either underweight and starving or obese with associated health problems. 2. Food is a source of energy and raw materials and you should consider the effects of diet on the body. 3. Appreciate that countries having food emergencies raises ethical issues for science and technology. 4. You may have compared the nutritional value of various breakfast cereals and considered the associated energy intake and further considered the energy content in various foods. 5. Know how to carry out simple food tests on a variety of food types. 6. Be able to explain why a balanced diet should include:
carbohydrates and fats
minerals (limited to iron)
vitamins (limited to vitamin C)
7. Demonstrate an understanding of how to calculate a personal estimated average daily requirement (EAR) for protein. e.g. you may have recorded a day’s food intake and calculate the amount of protein. 8. Demonstrate an understanding of how to...
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