Basics of Psychopharmacology

Topics: Neuron, Nervous system, Brain Pages: 5 (1188 words) Published: September 24, 2014
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Function of nervous system
Basically designed to keep you alive
Essentially you can adapt to whatever environment you’re in and stay alive Adapt to be able to do behaviors
Drugs have direct effect on NS
Synaptic transmission
Started out neuron centric until about 10 years ago
Basically looked at how drugs affect neurons and what role neurons play in behaviors How neurons were communicating with other neurons or other cells in body All drugs changed what was happening at synapse

Either mimic transmission or enhance it or decrease it
All focused on neurons and their communication
Psychopharm
Not just neurons involved in communication
Glial cells, astrocytes (enveloping synapses)
Used to think astrocytes and glial cells there to give neurons nutrients they need (facilitate them) and get rid of metabolites Astrocytes play major role in communication in NS
Drugs affect glial cells…astrocytes that help with communication Psychopharm
We produce new neurons so started looking for precursors for neurons Thought oligodendrocyes were precursors
Cells in the CNS picture…maybe they’re precursors?
Maybe OPCs are not just precursors for new cells…also play role in neuron communication Glial cells born throughout life and other NS cells we didn’t consider before Not just astrocytes and oligondendrocytes

Now different types of these discovered
Oligos wrap axons in myelin but also prob do other stuff
Drugs effect all cells, not just neurons
Neuroplasticity
When NS receives info so it can produce behaviors so you can survive, this involves circuits (lots of neurons) Behaviors made up of neuron circuits in which neurons are talking to each other Circuits are plastic…always changing

Changes all the time when you do anything
NS constantly adapting and circuits changing
When we talk about how drugs affect NS, we have to think about a lot of factors NS Review
Blood brain barrier…trick this to get drugs into NS
Divisions of NS
CNS
PNS
Usually want drugs in CNS (brain and spinal cord) for behavioral effects Take drugs systemically so affect PNS before CNS
Usually where side effects come into play
Used to try to target really specifically to minimize side effects but now we know that lots of cells are effected so the idea is drugs with a “pliotropic effect” (affect multiple parts of brain, neurons, etc) Always try to minimize side effects

Always have side effects so balance if behavior is severe enough to put up with side effects Other features
Meninges
Have to get drugs into brain
Brain covered by dura
Ventricles give NS structure and protect it
NS doesn’t store fat molecules or oxygen
NS basically gets what it needs from blood
Over 400 miles of capillaries, arteries, in CNS
Every neuron win 10-20 microns of a capillary
Exchange between brain and blood
Waste management
NS, unlike any other system, doesn’t have a lot of veins…some big veins but not a lot within brain itself Have sinuses which are made of dura that’s split apart
Blood dumps into sinuses
Metabolites dump into CSF
Meninges
Arteries
Blood brain barrier
In capillaries we have endothelial cells that form tight junctions and basically surrounding them are astrocytes which have endfeet 90% of capillaries covered by astrocytic endfeet
Pericytes are muscle cells
Most of NS covered by BBB
Not only barrier used for getting in
Brain CSF barrier
Blood CSF barrier
Dural sinuses
Vent system
Things dumped in CSF then dumped into sinuses
In arachnoid space where CSF is within ventricles
Daily make 500 mls of CSF
Constantly getting rid of waste/metabolites
Dev subdivisions
Different parts of NS do different kinds of things
Telen: higher order cog functions
Dien: thalamus is relay station transmitting info
Hypothalamus: lots of hormones released
Drugs effect endocrine system as well as NS
Drugs with one specific effect has a different response in kid because hormones don’t play big role in behavior yet…same with all ages,...
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