AP Psychology Midterm Study Guide #1
Unit 1: Psychology's History and Approaches
1.Definition of Psychology? Disciplines it is rooted in?
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental process; it seeks to answer how and why we think, feel, act as we do. Psychology is rooted in philosophy and biology.
2.What is the difference between nativism and empiricism? Which ancient philosophers/early psychologist were nativist? which were empiricist? Nativism is the argument that all our skills and abilities are native, or born in use. (Nature)
Socrates and Plato
Renee Descartes (dualism, body is a vessel for the mind to experience)
Empiricism is the argument that says our brain has capabilities to learn from our environment and that is the way we become who we are.
John Locke (Tabula rasa, blank slate)
3.What is Psychology's historic big issue?
Psychology's big historical issue is Nature versus Nurture. Whether we are the way we are because our nature, genes and trait, or is base on the environment we live in. 4.Who is considered the first scientific psychologists? What was his contribution?
5.What are the seven different approaches to psychology?
The way the body & brain enable our emotions, memories, the impact of genes on individual differences. Studying the brain circuits that cause us to be “red in the face” Evolutionary
Natural Selection of traits (only the strong survive)
Studying how anger help our ancestors survive
How behavior comes from our unconscious drives
Jazmine not liking things Jalisha do, because unconsciously she knows it is the bad in her (Jazmine). Behavioral
We learn to react by observing throughout our lives
Being afraid of Tigers because you grown up told and seeing ppl afraid of tigers Cognitive
How we process, store, and retrieve info
Studying how we process a situation affects our anger.
Trying to meet our needs for love and acceptance
How anger affects someone fulfilling their full potential
Behavior and thinking varying throughout different societies and cultures How anger in some cultures are thought as Strength and in the USA, something to be controlled
6.What is introspection? Which psychological approach as it associated with? How is behavior defined in psychology?
Introspection was introduced by Titchener and it was a way for participates in an experiment to verbal relay their experience. it was unreliable because it varied for every person and it didn’t tells us exactly why people felt these ways. It was related to Structuralism. Behavior is any action we can observe and record.
Unit 2 : Research Methods: Critical Thinking with Psychological Science 1.What is hindsight bias?
Hindsight Bias is the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that you could have predicted it. (Ex. Knowing that somebody was going to be voted off of Project Runway, even though you never knew.) 2.What is an operational definition? What is it’s purpose? Operational definition is a statement of the procedure used to define research variables. It allows for the experiment to be replicated.
3.What are three types of descriptive research methods? Be able to differentiate between the three.
An observation where one person or group is studied in depth to develop universal principles Lead to further studies
Cannot discern general truths
looks at many cases at once
Need careful wording
Observing & recording behavior in nature w/o trying to manipulate or control the situation Doesn’t explain the cause of behavior
4.What does it mean if something is positively correlated? Negative correlated? What do the numbers tell us about the correlation? A positive correlation tells us the extent which factors rise . Negative correlation says that...
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